Two of the world’s giants—the first and second most populous nations—share a single continent, but vastly different visions of their region and the world. China and India each have a legitimate claim to hegemony, to leadership, and to a shared or competitive future. We asked our panel of global experts which nation would emerge as Asia’s leading power in the future.

Among the newly emerging economies, China and India are often thought of as the two undisputed candidates to overtake the United States for world leadership in the foreseeable future. The rebalancing of wealth from West to East has led to growing expectations that Beijing and New Delhi will leverage their increased influence to address global governance challenges including trade, development, climate change, and transnational health problems. Indeed, China and India are more proactive in dealing with global issues. Both are...

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