Table 6

Explained and unexplained change in parenting time between 2019 and 2020 (Kitagawa–Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition, Neumark pooled approach)

Mothers (n = 830)Fathers (n = 635)
Any Time With ChildrenDevelopment TimeSecondary Care TimeAny Time With ChildrenDevelopment TimeSecondary Care Time
Gross Change (minutes) 33.1 31.7 105.5 38.5 6.3 66.8 
Explained (composition; minutes) 16.8 7.1 7.1 −8.6 −0.5 −5.2 
 % of Gross Change 50.6 22.4 6.8 −22.4 −7.6 −7.7 
Unexplained (rates; minutes) 16.4 24.6 98.3 47.2 6.8 72.0 
 % of Gross Change 49.4 77.6 93.2 122.4 107.6 107.7 
Explained (composition) Total 16.8 7.1 7.1 −8.6 −0.5 −5.2 
 Work status total 21.9 5.9 18.6 1.0 −0.8 3.0 
  Full-time 13.2 3.8 10.3 −1.8 −0.3 −1.7 
  Part-time 0.1 0.1 0.0 1.0 −0.4 3.0 
  Unemployed 7.2 1.2 8.0 −0.4 −0.1 −0.7 
  Not working 1.4 0.9 0.2 2.3 0.0 2.5 
 All other covariates −5.1 1.2 −11.5 −9.6 0.3 −8.2 
Unexplained (rates) Total 16.4 24.6 98.3 47.2 6.8 72.0 
 Work status total 1.2 9.1 3.0 22.5 6.2 −24.3 
  Full-time 4.3 2.4 22.3 23.5 6.7 −25.6 
  Part-time −0.4 2.1 −8.8 −2.6 −0.2 3.6 
  Unemployed −2.9 5.8 −11.9 1.4 −0.2 −3.4 
  Not working 0.2 −1.1 1.4 0.2 −0.1 1.1 
 All other covariates 15.2 15.5 95.3 24.7 0.6 96.3 
Constant −111.1 42.8 −98.7 21.1 −3.6 −42.3 
Mothers (n = 830)Fathers (n = 635)
Any Time With ChildrenDevelopment TimeSecondary Care TimeAny Time With ChildrenDevelopment TimeSecondary Care Time
Gross Change (minutes) 33.1 31.7 105.5 38.5 6.3 66.8 
Explained (composition; minutes) 16.8 7.1 7.1 −8.6 −0.5 −5.2 
 % of Gross Change 50.6 22.4 6.8 −22.4 −7.6 −7.7 
Unexplained (rates; minutes) 16.4 24.6 98.3 47.2 6.8 72.0 
 % of Gross Change 49.4 77.6 93.2 122.4 107.6 107.7 
Explained (composition) Total 16.8 7.1 7.1 −8.6 −0.5 −5.2 
 Work status total 21.9 5.9 18.6 1.0 −0.8 3.0 
  Full-time 13.2 3.8 10.3 −1.8 −0.3 −1.7 
  Part-time 0.1 0.1 0.0 1.0 −0.4 3.0 
  Unemployed 7.2 1.2 8.0 −0.4 −0.1 −0.7 
  Not working 1.4 0.9 0.2 2.3 0.0 2.5 
 All other covariates −5.1 1.2 −11.5 −9.6 0.3 −8.2 
Unexplained (rates) Total 16.4 24.6 98.3 47.2 6.8 72.0 
 Work status total 1.2 9.1 3.0 22.5 6.2 −24.3 
  Full-time 4.3 2.4 22.3 23.5 6.7 −25.6 
  Part-time −0.4 2.1 −8.8 −2.6 −0.2 3.6 
  Unemployed −2.9 5.8 −11.9 1.4 −0.2 −3.4 
  Not working 0.2 −1.1 1.4 0.2 −0.1 1.1 
 All other covariates 15.2 15.5 95.3 24.7 0.6 96.3 
Constant −111.1 42.8 −98.7 21.1 −3.6 −42.3 
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