Table 5

Predicted parenting time (in minutes) by year and parent gender, and estimated changes in parenting time and gender parenting time gap

Any Time With ChildrenDevelopmental TimeSecondary Care TimeWork and Secondary Care Time% Work Time in Secondary Care
2019202020192020201920202019202020192020
Mothers 387.2 403.6 45.2 69.8 339.1 437.4 33.3 129.2 10.8 31.6 
 (367.3–407.2) (381.8–425.4) (37.5–53.0) (59.0–75.7) (318.4–359.8) (411.3–463.6) (18.4–48.3) (102.1–156.2) (6.9–14.8) (24.4–37.9) 
Fathers 212.2 259.4 29.5 36.3 205.1 277.1 18.8 64.6 4.7 13.6 
 (192.0–232.5) (226.7–292.2) (23.5–35.5) (28.6–44.0) (182.7–227.6) (242.9–311.4) (8.9–28.6) (47.2–82.0) (2.6–6.9) (10.1–17.1) 
Gender Difference 175.0 144.2 15.7 33.5 134.0 160.3 14.5 64.6 6.1 18.0 
% Change in the Gender Difference −17.6 +113.4 +19.6 +345.5 +195.1 
Any Time With ChildrenDevelopmental TimeSecondary Care TimeWork and Secondary Care Time% Work Time in Secondary Care
2019202020192020201920202019202020192020
Mothers 387.2 403.6 45.2 69.8 339.1 437.4 33.3 129.2 10.8 31.6 
 (367.3–407.2) (381.8–425.4) (37.5–53.0) (59.0–75.7) (318.4–359.8) (411.3–463.6) (18.4–48.3) (102.1–156.2) (6.9–14.8) (24.4–37.9) 
Fathers 212.2 259.4 29.5 36.3 205.1 277.1 18.8 64.6 4.7 13.6 
 (192.0–232.5) (226.7–292.2) (23.5–35.5) (28.6–44.0) (182.7–227.6) (242.9–311.4) (8.9–28.6) (47.2–82.0) (2.6–6.9) (10.1–17.1) 
Gender Difference 175.0 144.2 15.7 33.5 134.0 160.3 14.5 64.6 6.1 18.0 
% Change in the Gender Difference −17.6 +113.4 +19.6 +345.5 +195.1 

Notes: Predicted estimates are based on Model 2 from Tables 2 (mothers) and 3 (fathers). Estimates for the last two columns are based on models from Table 4. 95% confidence intervals are shown in parentheses. Post-hoc Wald tests determined that all gender differences within and between survey waves were statistically significant at p < .05.

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