Table 1

Means and frequencies of independent variables and selected covariates

MothersFathers
2019202020192020
Parenting Time Outcomes (means)     
 Any caregiving time (minutes) 378.8 411.9* 216.5 255.0* 
 (231.3) (249.8) (191.2) (227.7) 
 Developmental time (minutes) 41.6 73.3* 29.7 36.1 
 (73.7) (112.1) (53.0) (69.9) 
 Secondary care time (minutes) 335.5 441.0* 207.7 274.5* 
 (231.3) (263.5) (210.1) (273.8) 
Covariates     
 Work status     
  Full-time 53 43* 88 89 
  Part-time 19 18 
  Unemployed 
  Not working 26 35* 
 Student 
 Education     
  High school diploma/GED or less 33 35 37 35 
  Some college/associate's degree 22 24 21 23 
  College degree 45 42 42 43 
 Mean age 36.6 36.4 39.0 39.3 
 (7.5) (8.0) (8.3) (7.5) 
 Race/ethnicity     
  White, non-Hispanic 57 53 63 54* 
  Black, non-Hispanic 13 12 10 14 
  Hispanic White 19 25 17 18 
  Asian 
  Other race/ethnicity 
 Foreign-born 28 29 28 32 
 Mean family income (range, 1–16) 12.1 12.0 12.3 13.3 
 (3.9) (3.9) (3.8) (2.9) 
 Partnership status     
  Married 74 70 84 88 
  Cohabiting 
  Single 19 24 
 Mean number of children 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.0 
 (1.0) (0.9) (0.9) (0.9) 
 Child aged 0–2 years 32 33 33 26 
 Child aged 3–5 years 37 34 35 36 
 Child aged 6–12 years 69 72 65 74* 
Total n 381 449 313 322 
MothersFathers
2019202020192020
Parenting Time Outcomes (means)     
 Any caregiving time (minutes) 378.8 411.9* 216.5 255.0* 
 (231.3) (249.8) (191.2) (227.7) 
 Developmental time (minutes) 41.6 73.3* 29.7 36.1 
 (73.7) (112.1) (53.0) (69.9) 
 Secondary care time (minutes) 335.5 441.0* 207.7 274.5* 
 (231.3) (263.5) (210.1) (273.8) 
Covariates     
 Work status     
  Full-time 53 43* 88 89 
  Part-time 19 18 
  Unemployed 
  Not working 26 35* 
 Student 
 Education     
  High school diploma/GED or less 33 35 37 35 
  Some college/associate's degree 22 24 21 23 
  College degree 45 42 42 43 
 Mean age 36.6 36.4 39.0 39.3 
 (7.5) (8.0) (8.3) (7.5) 
 Race/ethnicity     
  White, non-Hispanic 57 53 63 54* 
  Black, non-Hispanic 13 12 10 14 
  Hispanic White 19 25 17 18 
  Asian 
  Other race/ethnicity 
 Foreign-born 28 29 28 32 
 Mean family income (range, 1–16) 12.1 12.0 12.3 13.3 
 (3.9) (3.9) (3.8) (2.9) 
 Partnership status     
  Married 74 70 84 88 
  Cohabiting 
  Single 19 24 
 Mean number of children 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.0 
 (1.0) (0.9) (0.9) (0.9) 
 Child aged 0–2 years 32 33 33 26 
 Child aged 3–5 years 37 34 35 36 
 Child aged 6–12 years 69 72 65 74* 
Total n 381 449 313 322 

Notes: Standard deviations are shown in parentheses. Several covariates are not included in the table: living in a metropolitan area, geographic region, time-diary month, and whether time diary was a holiday.

*Indicates that the mean or frequency is statistically different from the 2019 value at p < .05 based on a chi-square or t test.

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