Table 5

Heterogeneity in the intergenerational transmission of women's FTFY employment propensities by SES and the second generation's motherhood status

2nd Generation's Motherhood Status
AllNo Young ChildYoung Child
Low SESHigh SESLow SESHigh SESLow SESHigh SES
A. High SES: 1st Generation Completed Some College
Linear probability model estimates: 2nd generation's FTFY employment propensity
1st generation's FTFY employment history .070 .102* .086* .064 .038 .168**
(.044) (.058) (.050) (.064) (.051) (.068)
Low = high p value     .126
2nd generation's sample FTFY employment rate .495 .506 .588 .617 .373 .394
Number of mother-daughter pairs  1,116 796 892 666 850 595
Fixed effect model estimates:2nd generation's motherhood FTFY employment penalty
1st generation's FTFY employment history     .035 .142**
(.058) (.071)
Low = high p value     .190
2nd generation's sample motherhood penalty     –.230*** –.174***
(.017) (.018)
Number of mother-daughter pairs     1,116 796
B. High SES: 2nd Generation Completed 4 Years of College
Linear probability model estimates: 2nd generation's FTFY employment propensity
1st generation's FTFY employment history .076* .161*** .071 .142** .085* .215***
(.041) (.062) (.046) (.069) (.048) (.080)
Low = high p value     .162
2nd generation's sample FTFY employment rate .477 .550 .572 .667 .358 .431
Number of mother-daughter pairs 1,363 550 1,062 495 1,047 400
Fixed effect model estimates: 2nd generation's motherhood FTFY employment penalty
1st generation's FTFY employment history     .057 .147*
(.055) (.082)
Low = high p value     .266
2nd generation's sample motherhood penalty     –.210*** –.160***
(.016) (.020)
Number of mother-daughter pairs     1,363 550
2nd Generation's Motherhood Status
AllNo Young ChildYoung Child
Low SESHigh SESLow SESHigh SESLow SESHigh SES
A. High SES: 1st Generation Completed Some College
Linear probability model estimates: 2nd generation's FTFY employment propensity
1st generation's FTFY employment history .070 .102* .086* .064 .038 .168**
(.044) (.058) (.050) (.064) (.051) (.068)
Low = high p value     .126
2nd generation's sample FTFY employment rate .495 .506 .588 .617 .373 .394
Number of mother-daughter pairs  1,116 796 892 666 850 595
Fixed effect model estimates:2nd generation's motherhood FTFY employment penalty
1st generation's FTFY employment history     .035 .142**
(.058) (.071)
Low = high p value     .190
2nd generation's sample motherhood penalty     –.230*** –.174***
(.017) (.018)
Number of mother-daughter pairs     1,116 796
B. High SES: 2nd Generation Completed 4 Years of College
Linear probability model estimates: 2nd generation's FTFY employment propensity
1st generation's FTFY employment history .076* .161*** .071 .142** .085* .215***
(.041) (.062) (.046) (.069) (.048) (.080)
Low = high p value     .162
2nd generation's sample FTFY employment rate .477 .550 .572 .667 .358 .431
Number of mother-daughter pairs 1,363 550 1,062 495 1,047 400
Fixed effect model estimates: 2nd generation's motherhood FTFY employment penalty
1st generation's FTFY employment history     .057 .147*
(.055) (.082)
Low = high p value     .266
2nd generation's sample motherhood penalty     –.210*** –.160***
(.016) (.020)
Number of mother-daughter pairs     1,363 550

Notes: See Table 2 for main sample information. Full-time, full-year (FTFY) employment is defined as at least 1,600 hours of paid work in the reference year. The explanatory variable is the share of years when the individual was aged 0–10 during which her mother worked FTFY. Linear probability model estimates come from the full specification used in Table 3 (column 4). Fixed-effect model estimates of the motherhood employment penalty include controls for the interaction of motherhood status with birth cohort, race, division of origin, parental education, and daughter's education. Robust standard errors, clustered at the individual level, appear in parentheses below the coefficients. Regressions are weighted by PSID core family sampling weights.

*p < .05; **p < .01; ***p < .001

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