Table 7

Second-stage results: Maternal education and 10 pathways indicators (one model per indicator per country)

MalawiUganda
Years of Education on2SLS2SLS
Socioeconomic Status 
  Wealth index 0.008 0.151*** 
(0.010) (0.029) 
  Medical care: Money 0.029** 0.075** 
(0.010) (0.023) 
Attitudes Toward Modern Health Services 
  Use of modern contraception 0.028** 0.027 
(0.009) (0.015) 
Personal Illness Control 
  Personal illness control –0.004 0.079 
(0.014) (0.043) 
Environmental Characteristics 
  Close to health facility 0.031** 0.009 
(0.010) (0.020) 
Health Knowledge 
  Knowledge about contracting AIDS 0.006 0.052 
(0.013) (0.037) 
  Knowledge about transmission of AIDS 0.023* 0.001 
(0.010) (0.029) 
  Knowledge about ovulation –0.015 –0.006 
(0.008) (0.015) 
Empowerment 
  Decision-making 0.001 –0.066 
(0.022) (0.045) 
  Empowered domestic violence 0.095*** 0.204*** 
(0.015) (0.061) 
MalawiUganda
Years of Education on2SLS2SLS
Socioeconomic Status 
  Wealth index 0.008 0.151*** 
(0.010) (0.029) 
  Medical care: Money 0.029** 0.075** 
(0.010) (0.023) 
Attitudes Toward Modern Health Services 
  Use of modern contraception 0.028** 0.027 
(0.009) (0.015) 
Personal Illness Control 
  Personal illness control –0.004 0.079 
(0.014) (0.043) 
Environmental Characteristics 
  Close to health facility 0.031** 0.009 
(0.010) (0.020) 
Health Knowledge 
  Knowledge about contracting AIDS 0.006 0.052 
(0.013) (0.037) 
  Knowledge about transmission of AIDS 0.023* 0.001 
(0.010) (0.029) 
  Knowledge about ovulation –0.015 –0.006 
(0.008) (0.015) 
Empowerment 
  Decision-making 0.001 –0.066 
(0.022) (0.045) 
  Empowered domestic violence 0.095*** 0.204*** 
(0.015) (0.061) 

Notes: The standard errors, shown in parentheses, are clustered at the district level. All regressions for mothers include religion (Malawi only), district fixed effects, interaction between the dummy variable for young and the district-specific number of girls in primary school before UPE, and interaction between the dummy variable for young and the number of primary school–aged children before UPE. All regressions for children further include child sex, birth order, and child year of birth fixed effects. Sample excludes missing information and Uganda DHS–MIS 2009 because these questions are not included in the DHS–MIS questionnaire (DHS restriction). First-stage results are unaffected by the reduction in the sample size.

p < .10; *p < .05; **p < .01; ***p < .001

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