Table 2

Summary statistics of the pathway indicators

OverallTreatmentControl
MeanSDMeanSDMeanSD
A. Malawi (treatment: born 1981–1987; control: born 1969–1976) 
  Socioeconomic status 
    Wealth index (0 to 5.1) 0.73 0.60 0.75 0.64 0.71 0.56 
    Medical care: money (n = 12,010) 0.42 0.49 0.46 0.50 0.37 0.48 
  Attitudes toward modern health services 
    Use of modern contraception (n = 13,427)a 0.42 0.49 0.43 0.49 0.41 0.49 
  Personal illness control 
    Personal illness control (0 to 8) (n = 15,274)b 3.73 0.78 3.72 0.72 3.74 0.83 
  Environmental characteristics 
    Close to health facility (n = 12,010) 0.41 0.49 0.43 0.49 0.37 0.48 
  Health knowledge 
    Knowledge about contracting AIDS (0 to 2.5) (n = 15,042) 1.96 0.67 1.98 0.66 1.93 0.66 
    Knowledge about transmission of AIDS (0 to 2.5) (n = 15,042) 1.98 0.64 2.02 0.60 1.95 0.67 
    Knowledge about ovulation (0 to 1) (n = 15,465) 0.44 0.33 0.45 0.32 0.44 0.34 
  Empowerment 
    Decision-making (0 to 2.5) (n = 14,491) 0.92 0.81 0.91 0.80 0.92 0.83 
    Empowered domestic violence (0 to 3.6) (n = 14,491) 3.19 0.92 3.24 0.87 3.13 0.96 
B. Uganda (treatment: born 1984–1991; control: born 1974–1980) 
  Socioeconomic status 
    Wealth index (0 to 3.9) 1.21 0.72 1.40 0.65 1.07 0.74 
    Medical care: money (n = 6,827) 0.41 0.49 0.45 0.50 0.38 0.49 
  Attitudes toward modern health services 
    Use of modern contraception (n = 5,661)a 0.27 0.44 0.25 0.43 0.28 0.45 
  Personal illness control 
    Personal illness control (0 to 7.3) (n = 6,679)b 2.69 0.77 2.71 0.70 2.68 0.82 
  Environmental characteristics 
    Close to health facility (n = 6,827) 0.51 0.50 0.52 0.50 0.50 0.50 
  Health knowledge 
    Knowledge about contracting AIDS (0 to 2.6) (n = 6,637) 2.16 0.71 2.18 0.71 2.15 0.71 
    Knowledge about transmission of AIDS (0 to 2.1) (n = 6,637) 1.42 0.67 1.41 0.68 1.43 0.66 
    Knowledge about ovulation (0 to 1) (n = 6,831) 0.43 0.33 0.42 0.32 0.43 0.33 
  Empowerment 
    Decision-making (0 to 2.4) (n = 6,076) 1.22 0.84 1.17 0.84 1.25 0.83 
    Empowered domestic violence (0 to 2.7) (n = 6,076) 1.57 0.88 1.64 0.89 1.53 0.87 
OverallTreatmentControl
MeanSDMeanSDMeanSD
A. Malawi (treatment: born 1981–1987; control: born 1969–1976) 
  Socioeconomic status 
    Wealth index (0 to 5.1) 0.73 0.60 0.75 0.64 0.71 0.56 
    Medical care: money (n = 12,010) 0.42 0.49 0.46 0.50 0.37 0.48 
  Attitudes toward modern health services 
    Use of modern contraception (n = 13,427)a 0.42 0.49 0.43 0.49 0.41 0.49 
  Personal illness control 
    Personal illness control (0 to 8) (n = 15,274)b 3.73 0.78 3.72 0.72 3.74 0.83 
  Environmental characteristics 
    Close to health facility (n = 12,010) 0.41 0.49 0.43 0.49 0.37 0.48 
  Health knowledge 
    Knowledge about contracting AIDS (0 to 2.5) (n = 15,042) 1.96 0.67 1.98 0.66 1.93 0.66 
    Knowledge about transmission of AIDS (0 to 2.5) (n = 15,042) 1.98 0.64 2.02 0.60 1.95 0.67 
    Knowledge about ovulation (0 to 1) (n = 15,465) 0.44 0.33 0.45 0.32 0.44 0.34 
  Empowerment 
    Decision-making (0 to 2.5) (n = 14,491) 0.92 0.81 0.91 0.80 0.92 0.83 
    Empowered domestic violence (0 to 3.6) (n = 14,491) 3.19 0.92 3.24 0.87 3.13 0.96 
B. Uganda (treatment: born 1984–1991; control: born 1974–1980) 
  Socioeconomic status 
    Wealth index (0 to 3.9) 1.21 0.72 1.40 0.65 1.07 0.74 
    Medical care: money (n = 6,827) 0.41 0.49 0.45 0.50 0.38 0.49 
  Attitudes toward modern health services 
    Use of modern contraception (n = 5,661)a 0.27 0.44 0.25 0.43 0.28 0.45 
  Personal illness control 
    Personal illness control (0 to 7.3) (n = 6,679)b 2.69 0.77 2.71 0.70 2.68 0.82 
  Environmental characteristics 
    Close to health facility (n = 6,827) 0.51 0.50 0.52 0.50 0.50 0.50 
  Health knowledge 
    Knowledge about contracting AIDS (0 to 2.6) (n = 6,637) 2.16 0.71 2.18 0.71 2.15 0.71 
    Knowledge about transmission of AIDS (0 to 2.1) (n = 6,637) 1.42 0.67 1.41 0.68 1.43 0.66 
    Knowledge about ovulation (0 to 1) (n = 6,831) 0.43 0.33 0.42 0.32 0.43 0.33 
  Empowerment 
    Decision-making (0 to 2.4) (n = 6,076) 1.22 0.84 1.17 0.84 1.25 0.83 
    Empowered domestic violence (0 to 2.7) (n = 6,076) 1.57 0.88 1.64 0.89 1.53 0.87 

Notes: Means are based on weighted data. Sample sizes are unweighted.

aExcluding pregnant women.

bExcluding less recent births.

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