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Table 5

Auxiliary analyses considering means of potential mechanisms, measured after paternal incarceration

VariableStratum 1Stratum 2Stratum 3
p = [0–.20)p = [.20–.40)p = [.40–.80)
TreatmentControlPercentage DifferenceTreatmentControlPercentage DifferenceTreatmentControlPercentage Difference
Mechanisms          
 Economic well-being          
  In poverty 0.307 0.178 42** 0.496 0.355 28*** 0.583 0.543 
  Material hardship 1.510 0.740 51*** 1.666 1.248 25*** 1.695 1.468 13* 
  Employed 0.693 0.686 0.622 0.642 0.540 0.562 
 Relationship with father          
  No romantic relationship with focal child’s father 0.684 0.248 64*** 0.780 0.602 23*** 0.872 0.738 15*** 
  New romantic partner 0.351 0.145 59*** 0.452 0.350 23** 0.538 0.410 24*** 
  Relationship quality with child’s father 2.491 3.615 45*** 2.267 2.854 26*** 2.065 2.374 15*** 
 Parenting          
  Engagement with focal child 2.672 2.614 2.785 2.729 2.799 2.751 
  Father’s shared responsibility in parenting 1.993 3.003 51*** 1.836 2.328 27*** 1.578 1.888 20*** 
  Father’s cooperation in parenting 2.756 3.479 26*** 2.517 3.009 20*** 2.216 2.588 17*** 
  Parenting stress 2.104 1.935 8* 2.061 2.004 2.167 2.145 
  Neglect 0.080 0.055 31 0.071 0.052 27* 0.057 0.053 
 Health          
  Fair or poor health 0.132 0.108 18 0.191 0.146 24 0.239 0.222 
  Depression 0.219 0.107 51** 0.208 0.173 17 0.247 0.209 15 
  Substance use 0.158 0.077 51* 0.179 0.110 39** 0.200 0.167 17 
N 114 905  341 738  494 473  
VariableStratum 1Stratum 2Stratum 3
p = [0–.20)p = [.20–.40)p = [.40–.80)
TreatmentControlPercentage DifferenceTreatmentControlPercentage DifferenceTreatmentControlPercentage Difference
Mechanisms          
 Economic well-being          
  In poverty 0.307 0.178 42** 0.496 0.355 28*** 0.583 0.543 
  Material hardship 1.510 0.740 51*** 1.666 1.248 25*** 1.695 1.468 13* 
  Employed 0.693 0.686 0.622 0.642 0.540 0.562 
 Relationship with father          
  No romantic relationship with focal child’s father 0.684 0.248 64*** 0.780 0.602 23*** 0.872 0.738 15*** 
  New romantic partner 0.351 0.145 59*** 0.452 0.350 23** 0.538 0.410 24*** 
  Relationship quality with child’s father 2.491 3.615 45*** 2.267 2.854 26*** 2.065 2.374 15*** 
 Parenting          
  Engagement with focal child 2.672 2.614 2.785 2.729 2.799 2.751 
  Father’s shared responsibility in parenting 1.993 3.003 51*** 1.836 2.328 27*** 1.578 1.888 20*** 
  Father’s cooperation in parenting 2.756 3.479 26*** 2.517 3.009 20*** 2.216 2.588 17*** 
  Parenting stress 2.104 1.935 8* 2.061 2.004 2.167 2.145 
  Neglect 0.080 0.055 31 0.071 0.052 27* 0.057 0.053 
 Health          
  Fair or poor health 0.132 0.108 18 0.191 0.146 24 0.239 0.222 
  Depression 0.219 0.107 51** 0.208 0.173 17 0.247 0.209 15 
  Substance use 0.158 0.077 51* 0.179 0.110 39** 0.200 0.167 17 
N 114 905  341 738  494 473  

Notes: All potential mechanisms are measured at the nine-year survey. All variables refer to characteristics of mothers unless otherwise noted.

Source: Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study.

p < .10; *p < .05; **p < .01; ***p < .001 (two-tailed tests)

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