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Journal Article
Twentieth-Century Literature (1 December 2017) 63 (4): 405–426.
Published: 01 December 2017
... draft and manuscript materials by Emily Dickinson and Elizabeth Bishop, the essay argues that Moore’s continual revisions render her less an experimental poet than a teleological one, whose commitment was ultimately both to the “finish” of the lyric poem and to the lyric as a modality of communication...
Journal Article
Twentieth-Century Literature (1 March 2007) 53 (1): 79–87.
Published: 01 March 2007
...Susan Rosenbaum Elizabeth Bishop, Edgar Allan Poe and the Juke-Box: Uncollected Poems, Drafts, and Fragments , edited and annotated by Quinn Alice , New York : Farrar, Straus and Giroux , 2006 . 367 pages. Copyright © Hofstra University 2007 Collecting Elizabeth Bishop Elizabeth...
Journal Article
Twentieth-Century Literature (1 December 2008) 54 (4): 531–537.
Published: 01 December 2008
... postmodernist idiom, her most notable work surely the ongoing serial poem Drafts, three volumes of which are now in print: Drafts 1—38, Toll; Drcfts. Drafts 39—51, Pledge, with Draft, Unnumbered: Précis; and Torque: Drcfts 58—76. And she has writ­ ten many pieces that she calls essays, nonfictional...
Journal Article
Twentieth-Century Literature (1 March 2007) 53 (1): 1–22.
Published: 01 March 2007
... Mallarmé, has desig­ nated the “tombeau” (138); and the memorial service, specifically public services carried out by fellow poets and friends. As I will show in a close analysis of drafts of Bishop’s “North Haven,” her elegy for Robert Lowell, Twentieth- Century Literature 53.1 Spring 2007 1...
Journal Article
Twentieth-Century Literature (1 June 2011) 57 (2): 255–263.
Published: 01 June 2011
.... Moreover, writing is a creative process that goes through many different processes within its own act of production; its ultimate object is the product of many drafts and alternative creative acts which ebb and flow in and out of one another. Writing, as Fordham’s title suggests, is a process that...
Journal Article
Twentieth-Century Literature (1 March 2014) 60 (1): 128–136.
Published: 01 March 2014
... engagement recorded in drafts and notes makes the published fictions’ philosophical origins legible, “woven in the fabric and hidden in plain sight” (5). LeMahieu thus more often 129 Ali Chetwynd finds his “emblem[s]” (121, 156) in the archives than in the published fiction—for instance in...
Journal Article
Twentieth-Century Literature (1 September 2009) 55 (3): 322–356.
Published: 01 September 2009
.... One potential account of how, and with what attitude, Bishop shifts from privileging the figure of writing to that of reading emerges from the notes and writing she produced between drafting (and abandoning) “The U.S.A. School of Writing” and writing (and publishing) “The Sea & Its Shore.” We...
Journal Article
Twentieth-Century Literature (1 September 2017) 63 (3): 329–358.
Published: 01 September 2017
...) that never followed Invisible Man as a finished novel but whose drafting occupied Ellison for nearly half his life. Following her husband’s death in 1994, Fanny Ellison asked his literary executor, John F. Callahan, what he made of the extensive draft material Ellison had accumulated toward the...
Journal Article
Twentieth-Century Literature (1 June 2017) 63 (2): 228–236.
Published: 01 June 2017
... maturity for him comes in the poems in quatrains, which have been less discussed, especially formally, than Eliot’s more famous writing before and after, and it comes in The Waste Land . He draws our attention beneficially to those quatrain poems and to the drafts of The Waste Land , to bring out, among...
Journal Article
Twentieth-Century Literature (1 December 2015) 61 (4): 436–459.
Published: 01 December 2015
... symbolism The impact of Elizabeth Bishop’s maternal loss on the symbolic order of her poetry is well established. Victoria Harrison (1993) pays attention to the various appearances of Bishop’s mother, Gertrude Bulmer Bishop, in unpublished drafts such as “A mother made of dress-goods” and “Swan-boat ride...
Journal Article
Twentieth-Century Literature (1 March 2016) 62 (1): 56–74.
Published: 01 March 2016
... “drafts” but “versions” on the same motif, meant for different contexts or publication venues and exploring various possibilities of any particular poetic subject. In particular, this essay will examine the ways that the various versions of Crane’s late poem “The Idiot” represent the complex relationships...
Journal Article
Twentieth-Century Literature (1 December 2017) 63 (4): 451–474.
Published: 01 December 2017
..., on this and other occasions, to make his listeners think, and think again. We now know what Packard could only have imagined in 1948, which is that Roosevelt’s address to Congress had undergone painstaking revision in the hours leading up to its performance. Having dictated the first draft to his...
Journal Article
Twentieth-Century Literature (1 December 2015) 61 (4): 433–435.
Published: 01 December 2015
... and cultural learning, and justifies the relevance of that learning to Bishop and her text; it makes judicious and resourceful use of Bishop’s letters, her discarded drafts, and the facts of her biography to illuminate the text at hand. It does, in other words, exactly what we have in mind when we...
Journal Article
Twentieth-Century Literature (1 June 2005) 51 (2): 179–209.
Published: 01 June 2005
.... Amid growing tension with Bishop, Bowen returned to America in March 1970, leaving Bishop feeling isolated, as is suggested by her finishing a draft of“Crusoe in England” (Fountain and Braze 265) and “In the Waiting Room” (“Letters to Arthur Gold” 30). Merrill likely was thinking of this visit...
Journal Article
Twentieth-Century Literature (1 September 2013) 59 (3): 465–493.
Published: 01 September 2013
... implies a view of Jeremy as lacking an important faculty: it is only that he gives the “effect” that others are “lacking in some faculty.” Indeed, in the draft version of this passage, more importance is given to the faculty of hearing; there, the “faculty” they seem to “lack” is said to be...
Journal Article
Twentieth-Century Literature (1 June 2002) 48 (2): 150–173.
Published: 01 June 2002
... Lowell and Mer­ rill write of escaping from this intensity into the imaginary world of their toy soldiers. In a draft of the poem, Merrill identifies himself with 151 Timothy Materer a toy soldier, suggesting that, like the soldier, he can be displaced as easi­ ly as a toy or pawn.6 His...
Journal Article
Twentieth-Century Literature (1 March 2008) 54 (1): 105–114.
Published: 01 March 2008
... made to “Jenny” after the verdict in Regina v. Hicklin (1868) codified obscenity and put the legal defense of a text beyond its author’s intentions. Having buried the initial draft of the poem with his dead wife, Elizabeth Siddal, Rossetti reworked the poem for publication after its...
Journal Article
Twentieth-Century Literature (1 September 2008) 54 (3): 401–409.
Published: 01 September 2008
... holograph draft of “The Prime Minister,” the urnarrative of this elegiac novel, suggests the possibility of Smith’s manic enactment of violence as he fantasizes assas­ sinating the prime minister, becoming a “martyr” and not only killing himself but also making his corporeal remains available for...
Journal Article
Twentieth-Century Literature (1 December 2013) 59 (4): 539–574.
Published: 01 December 2013
... drafting the grandiose armature of the Sandover cosmos, and Claudia Ingram has demonstrated that within the unique time-scape (and fabulously inclusive language-scape) of the Ouija board sessions, “culturally authoritative but unassimilated and therefore ‘futuristic’ information from the [physical...
Journal Article
Twentieth-Century Literature (1 December 2013) 59 (4): 619–656.
Published: 01 December 2013
.... Eliot’s most unforgettable pseudonym is “Gus Krutzsch,” the nom de plume of his 1921 poem “Song to the Opherian.”14 At the same time that “Gus Krutzsch” makes his publishing debut as purported author of “Song to the Opherian,” Eliot is drafting The Waste Land.15 Revising a scene involving drunken...