Indigenous critics are interrogating the violences of modernity as conditions for understanding or debating gender, alongside critical works in trans studies and in queer-of-color, queer diaspora, and women-of-color feminist theories. This essay asks how two-spirit, queer indigenous, and indigenous feminist critiques call scholars in gender studies to ensure that discussions of gender respond to indigenous decolonization and its relationships with antiracist and anticolonial projects. In particular, two-spirit, queer indigenous, and indigenous feminist theories present resurgence as a means to challenge and transform colonial authority. The centering of indigenous epistemologies within resurgence work questions who defines language or the knowable within colonial situations. This essay asks how responding to indigenous resurgence can help to challenge and transform the racial and colonial violences that condition conversations about gender, including those addressing trans and feminist relationships.

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