Every individual has needs. Beyond the traditional conception of survival needs (water, food, etc.), we need connection. We are social beings, interdependent not only for water and food but also for intimacy, play, creativity, meaning, and purpose.

We come together in groups to increase our effectiveness in meeting our needs. And those groups—couples, families, tribes, nations, small businesses, and global organizations—differ in their level of connection and in their levels of complexity.

Formal groups (organizations) have an energizing, unifying purpose or aim, such as producing a product or providing a service. The aim is the organization’s unique invitation to belong. Organizations shift the “I” to the “we.” We individuals gather together to act as one organism.

To act collectively toward a shared aim, we answer some questions, implicitly or explicitly. Who does what? Who decides what? Who decides who decides what? What...

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