In 1915, the young Gershom Scholem, already a passionate Zionist and rebel against the assimilationist German Jewish bourgeoisie, wrote the following lines, certain to shock American Zionist ears in 2012:
[Herzl’s] only thought was: the Jewish State. And that we reject. For we preach anarchism. That is, we do not want a State, but rather a free society. . . . We as Jews know enough of the dreadful idolatry of the State . . . to pray to it and to offer it our children as a willing sacrifice to its unquenchable greed and lust for power. We Jews are no Staatsvolk.