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Journal Article
The Philosophical Review (2020) 129 (1): 53–94.
Published: 01 January 2020
... are variables, also called VARIABILISM . proper names descriptions pronouns variables philosophy of language semantics The orthodox view in philosophy of language with respect to proper names is millianism. This is the view that the meaning of a name is exhausted by its reference...
Journal Article
The Philosophical Review (2008) 117 (4): 525–554.
Published: 01 October 2008
...Samuel Cumming Variabilism is the view that proper names (like pronouns) are semantically represented as variables. Referential names, like referential pronouns, are assigned their referents by a contextual variable assignment (Kaplan 1989). The reference parameter (like the world of evaluation...
Journal Article
The Philosophical Review (2012) 121 (3): 359–406.
Published: 01 July 2012
... elements of the context, for example, I can fail to refer to the speaker. More precisely, indexicals are syntactically akin to logical variables. They can be free, in which case they work, roughly, on the Kaplan model. But they can also be bound: this happens, in a systematic fashion, when they are in the...
Journal Article
The Philosophical Review (2013) 122 (4): 577–617.
Published: 01 October 2013
... commonly thought, just on the presence of an operator ‘actually’. This essay argues that this phenomenon provides evidence that mood admits of bound and free readings along the lines of tenses and pronouns. It therefore favors the hypothesis that natural language contains variables and quantifiers for...
Journal Article
The Philosophical Review (2015) 124 (2): 207–253.
Published: 01 April 2015
... and as binding a variable within the scope of the attitude verb. This essay is interested in addressing the question what the semantic analysis of this kind of reading should look like from a Fregean perspective—a perspective according to which attitude states are generally relations to structured...
Journal Article
The Philosophical Review (2019) 128 (4): 463–509.
Published: 01 October 2019
...Jack C. Lyons The paper offers a solution to the generality problem for a reliabilist epistemology, by developing an “algorithm and parameters” scheme for type-individuating cognitive processes. Algorithms are detailed procedures for mapping inputs to outputs. Parameters are psychological variables...
Journal Article
The Philosophical Review (2021) 130 (1): 45–96.
Published: 01 January 2021
... that C caused (didn’t cause) E once one has removed an inessential variable from M . The article suggests that, if this theory is true, then one should understand a cause as something which transmits deviant or noninertial behavior to its effect. causal models structural equations token causation...
Journal Article
The Philosophical Review (2001) 110 (1): 138–141.
Published: 01 January 2001
...’, we can obtain the (false) propositions ‘Humanity is human’ and ‘The class of humans is human’, replacing Socrates by the proper- ty of humanity and the class of humans, respectively. Hence also, in PoM, Russell accepts the doctrine of the unrestricted variable: if we replace a logical subject...
Journal Article
The Philosophical Review (2006) 115 (4): 415–448.
Published: 01 October 2006
...Nathan Salmon Cornell University 2006 A Theory of Bondage Nathan Salmon University of California, Santa Barbara I. Let A be an assignment of values to variables on which Marlon Brando is the value of ‘x ’ and Shirley...
Journal Article
The Philosophical Review (2007) 116 (4): 495–532.
Published: 01 October 2007
... ordered pair < V, E>, where V is a set of vari- ables and E is a set of equations among these variables. A variable can take on different values, where each value represents the occurrence (or nonoccurrence) of some event, or perhaps a version of some event (to use the terminology of Lewis 2000...
Journal Article
The Philosophical Review (2001) 110 (4): 639–641.
Published: 01 October 2001
... aimed primarily at readers of the second type. Pearl represents a system of causal relationships by a causal model. A causal model consists of a set of variables, a set of functions, and a probability measure representing our ignorance of the actual values of the variables. Each function generates...
Journal Article
The Philosophical Review (2019) 128 (3): 363–366.
Published: 01 July 2019
... a broad concern with Elgin's approach to accounting for felicitous falsehoods in science. Above I suggested that Elgin's proposed definition of epistemic acceptability doesn't factor in variability, and thus inconsistency, among posits in science. More generally, I believe Elgin's account doesn't do...
Journal Article
The Philosophical Review (2008) 117 (1): 99–117.
Published: 01 January 2008
... structure from 5. The former lacks the relevant coindexing. 9. For example, the formal semantics of Kaplan 1989 actually allows wide scope quantifiers to bind variables in ‘dthat’ terms. Thus, it might be thought thatthe 103 JEFFREY C. KING...
Journal Article
The Philosophical Review (2015) 124 (3): 437–440.
Published: 01 July 2015
... their syntactic projection. As an illustration, the lexical item ‘ready’ means READY but is associated with features (say, + AGENT, + ACTIVITY) and these features force the logical forms in which ‘ready’ appears to have two argument spots. The unvoiced argument manifests as a bound variable and so ‘John...
Journal Article
The Philosophical Review (2008) 117 (3): 385–443.
Published: 01 July 2008
... of certain arithmetical truths. Cornell University 2008 Boolos, G. 1984 . “To Be Is to Be a Value of a Variable (or to Be Some Values of Some Variables).” Journal of Philosophy 81 : 430 -49. (Reprinted in Logic, Logic, and Logic, 54-72. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1998...
Journal Article
The Philosophical Review (2018) 127 (3): 371–398.
Published: 01 July 2018
... was necessary to introduce the technical concept of a σ -algebra: we do not want to talk only about causal strength between variables that take particular values, but also about more general features such as a variable exceeding a particular threshold. For instance, we can now determine the causal...
Journal Article
The Philosophical Review (2005) 114 (1): 136–138.
Published: 01 January 2005
.... Such quantification can be technically formulated in an unproblematic way, and this is our second way in which it makes sense. On this way it can be under- stood as based on a simple modification of the usual first-order languages. To do this generally, allow terms including variables to be atomic...
Journal Article
The Philosophical Review (2001) 110 (3): 361–396.
Published: 01 July 2001
.... Canals, Roads, etc. Figure 2 367 CHRISTOPHER HITCHCOCK Fogel’s model is represented schematically in figure 2. The variable ‘Railroad’ takes the values {railroad constructed prior to 1890, no railroad construction prior to 1890);the...
Journal Article
The Philosophical Review (2018) 127 (2): 260–264.
Published: 01 April 2018
... that deserves to be taken seriously, even by those who do not share his skepticism. The method of extending impoverished languages to include variables ranging over existing objects is not an incidental component of Hofweber's overall view. He accepts an ontology of ordinary objects, and hence...
Journal Article
The Philosophical Review (2002) 111 (4): 497–537.
Published: 01 October 2002
... demonstratives—that is, expressions like ‘that darn cat’ or the pronoun ‘he’ used deictically (in contrast to its use either as a bound variable or as a “pronoun of laziness A few philosophers deserve particular credit for advancing our understanding of demonstratives and other indexical (that is, context...