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levels of description

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Journal Article
The Philosophical Review (2015) 124 (1): 119–152.
Published: 01 January 2015
...Christian List; Marcus Pivato This article offers a new argument for the claim that there can be nondegenerate objective chance in a deterministic world. Using a formal model of the relationship between different levels of description of a system, the article shows how objective chance at a higher...
Journal Article
The Philosophical Review (2008) 117 (4): 626–630.
Published: 01 October 2008
...Patrick Forber Samir Okasha, Evolution and the Levels of Selection . Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2006. xi + 263 pp. © 2008 by Cornell University 2008 Damuth, J., and I. L. Heisler. 1988 . “Alternative Formulations of Multilevel Selection.” Biology and Philosophy 3 : 407 -30...
Journal Article
The Philosophical Review (2020) 129 (3): 433–463.
Published: 01 July 2020
... still necessary? The seemingly obvious answer is “yes.” Killing is necessary since it is the only means to achieve the goal that stands to justify killing. The problem with this answer is that it presupposes a certain description of that goal as something like “saving Victim’s life” or “saving Victim’s...
Journal Article
The Philosophical Review (2015) 124 (1): 59–117.
Published: 01 January 2015
... predicates that are true of their bearers. When a name appears as a bare singular in argument position, it really occupies the predicate position of what in this essay is called a denuded definite description : a definite description with an unpronounced definite article. Sloat provided good evidence for...
Journal Article
The Philosophical Review (2020) 129 (4): 591–642.
Published: 01 October 2020
... looking for it.” Maybe I'm assuming relational readings, when they might better be interpreted notionally. But the inference does not seem to be blocked for “wh”-“ever” phrases. Suppose they have the semantics of definite descriptions. “I'm looking for the only horse in town” seems to imply I'm looking...
Journal Article
The Philosophical Review (2014) 123 (2): 131–171.
Published: 01 April 2014
... which will be given a concrete interpretation in section 5): Example 2 Let W = { w 1 , … , w 8 } be a set of eight possible worlds; one might think of these eight possibilities as coinciding with the state descriptions that can be built from three propositions...
Journal Article
The Philosophical Review (2012) 121 (4): 483–538.
Published: 01 October 2012
...Huw Price In “A Subjectivist’s Guide to Objective Chance,” David Lewis says that he is “led to wonder whether anyone but a subjectivist is in a position to understand objective chance.” The present essay aims to motivate this same Lewisean attitude, and a similar degree of modest subjectivism, with...
Journal Article
The Philosophical Review (2009) 118 (3): 351–374.
Published: 01 July 2009
... hearing the descriptions of all five cities,3 and it is left for the reader to decide which features of the descriptions were responsible for that verdict. This has led many scholars to question some of the details of this ranking, with most attention being directed at accounting for the relatively...
Journal Article
The Philosophical Review (2015) 124 (1): 1–58.
Published: 01 January 2015
... as infinite given magnitude cannot, therefore, be the product of a synthesis considered as strictly reciprocal to conceptual unity. However, Dufour (2003, 76) draws upon the use of the description “concept of space” in the Metaphysical Exposition (ME) of TAe as grist to his conceptualist mill...
Journal Article
The Philosophical Review (2010) 119 (4): 531–563.
Published: 01 October 2010
... matter of course, conscious of ourselves, but we do not, as a matter of course, know ourselves. A second group of remarks, all of which occur in part 5 of the Ethics , emphasizes a different point about consciousness and knowledge: the knowledge that distinguishes the minds of the most powerful or...
Journal Article
The Philosophical Review (2009) 118 (4): 540–542.
Published: 01 October 2009
... property, exhausted by appearance—little mystery then why modernism rejected the value of beauty in art. Nehamas then draws a parallel between the interplay of criticism and evaluation and the judgment of beauty. Should a critic inform me of all of the descriptive features of an artwork, this...
Journal Article
The Philosophical Review (2010) 119 (4): 565–591.
Published: 01 October 2010
...) and Eric Watkins, Kant and the Metaphysics of Causality (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005) There was a time when the dispute about monads employed such general attention and was conducted with so much heat that it forced its way into company of every description...
Journal Article
The Philosophical Review (2012) 121 (4): 539–571.
Published: 01 October 2012
... rational belief suffice to determine probabilities for selection func- tions, identified by McGee with complex conditionals of the form (A ! wA ) ^ (B ! wB ) ^ (C ! wC ) ^ that is, explicit descriptions of the world that would be the case for each possible condition sup- posed true. Equations (1c) and...
Journal Article
The Philosophical Review (2010) 119 (4): 449–495.
Published: 01 October 2010
... inclined to take this “logical prescription” (A 309/ B 365) for the descriptive claim that: D : If the conditioned is given, the whole series of conditions sub- ordinated to one another, a series which is therefore itself unconditioned, is likewise given (compare A...
Journal Article
The Philosophical Review (2009) 118 (3): 285–324.
Published: 01 July 2009
... to construct descriptions like the cause of such and such sense data. A typical example of second-family Individual Representationalism re- quires the individual to have criteria of individuation. Individual Representationalism was often presented in develop- mental form. A child or animal...
Journal Article
The Philosophical Review (2014) 123 (4): 429–484.
Published: 01 October 2014
... forth) but by means of a deep, general, and precise logical contrast. DOF was introduced to contemporary philosophy of mind as a normative notion by John Searle (1983) , but there are both normative and descriptive theories of DOF. 2 Normative theories use normative terms like ‘responsibility...
Journal Article
The Philosophical Review (2010) 119 (3): 273–313.
Published: 01 July 2010
... tail removal, and both objects end up in the same spatial region, p,att, there should be at least two objects in region p at t. This description of the case seems innocuous. Yet monists insist that region p contains a single object at t. It is entirely unclear how sortal-relative attributes are...
Journal Article
The Philosophical Review (2012) 121 (4): 573–609.
Published: 01 October 2012
... there is both a possible world that meets our description of w 1 and a possible world that meets our description of w 2. What is much more controversial, however, is whether the two descrip- tions single out different worlds, or whether they are merely different descriptions of the same world...
Journal Article
The Philosophical Review (2018) 127 (3): 323–369.
Published: 01 July 2018
... properties and relations to objects, such as the ‘is’ in “Liya is tall” and “Ellen is dating José.” Specificational copulas are copulas that are used to specify who fulfills a certain description. For instance, the ‘is’ in “The 44th president of the United States is Barack Obama” is specificational. With...
Includes: Supplementary data
Journal Article
The Philosophical Review (2008) 117 (1): 1–47.
Published: 01 January 2008
..., 118 -32. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Kratzer, A. 1995 . “Stage-Level and Individual-Level Predicates.” In The Generic Book , ed. G. Carlson and F. J. Pelletier, 125 -76. Chicago: Chicago University Press. Krifka, M. 1987 . An Outline of Genericity . Technical Report SNS-Bericht 87 -25...