Shaun Gallagher's 2005 book, How the Body Shapes the Mind (OUP), had a huge impact on the philosophy of mind, making the embodied and phenomenological approach to the mind part of the mainstream. In his new, 2017 book, Gallagher offers, among other things, both an accurate overview of the embodied, enactive, extended, and embedded (4E) approaches of the last two decades or so, and a new focus on its neglected origins and potential source of future creativity in this field, namely, pragmatism, Gallagher claims.

In the first two chapters of the book, Gallagher looks at the big picture and the most general trends in nonclassical cognitive science and philosophy of mind. There is a lot of diversity in the approaches that are usually labelled as 4E, and it is important to structure this diversity in some intelligible way. Gallagher does this by considering the...

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