It is often held that vision is purely present-tensed; that vision informs us only about how objects in our environment are (more or less) rightnow. It is not hard to tell why this thought is so popular. Just look around and reflect on what you see. I predict that you will get the appeal.

As natural as this thought might be, it is mistaken—at least, so says Michael Madary. Madary's thesis can be stated simply:

(AF ) Visual perception is an ongoing process of anticipation and fulfillment.

In a nutshell, what is distinctive about (AF) is the idea that vision is partly future-tensed. For (AF) posits visual contents that involve anticipation—that is, visual contents that are not just about how the objects of vision are right now, but also about how these objects will (appear to) be as the...

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