The phrase “for humans” in Quassim Cassam's title signals a central concern of the book. We are, he emphasizes, Homo sapiens, not members of the fictitious tribe Homo philosophicus that figures in much of the recent philosophical literature on self-knowledge, namely, in the work of those he calls “Rationalists.” Rationalism embraces the “Transparency Method” (TM) to account for our knowledge of our propositional attitudes. He quotes a well-known passage from Gareth Evans about how answering the question whether one believes there will be a third world war requires attending to the evidence we would attend to if asked whether there will be a third world war, and he cites Richard Moran, who quotes the Evans passage with approval, as a prominent advocate of TM. A formulation of TM he quotes from David Finkelstein tells us that “the question of whether I believe that...

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