The history of colonialism in Canada has meant both the partition of Indigenous peoples from participating (physically, politically, legally) in the economy and a relentless demand to become assimilated as liberal capitalist citizens. Assimilation and segregation are both tendencies of colonization that protect the interests of white capital. But their respective prevalence seems to depend on the regime of racial capitalism at play. This paper examines the intersection of settler colonization and racial capitalism to shed light on the status of Indigenous economic rights in Canada. I ask, to what extent are Indigenous peoples understood to have economic rights—defined here as the governing authority to manage their lands and resources—and, how we can we analyze these rights to better understand the conjoined meanings of colonialism and capitalism as systems of power today? In this paper, I look at two sites to address this problem: first, I examine how the Supreme Court of Canada has defined the “Aboriginal right” to commercial economies since the patriation of Aboriginal rights into the Constitution in 1982; and, second, I examine how these rights are configured through state resource revenue-sharing schemes with First Nations, in particular from extractive projects, over the past few years. Each case study provides critical material for analyzing the economic opportunities available to First Nations through democratic channels of state “recognition,” as well as when and why tensions between state policies of segregation and assimilation emerge.

This content is only available as a PDF.

References

References
Adams Howard .
1975
.
Prison of Grass: Canada from the Native Point of View
.
Toronto
:
New Press
.
Adese Jennifer .
2011
. “
‘R’ Is for Métis: Contradictions in Scrip and Census in the Construction of a Colonial Métis Identity
.”
TOPIA
25
:
203
12
.
Ahousaht Indian Band and Nation v. Canada (Attorney General)
2018
BCSC 633
.
Altamirano-Jiménez Isabel .
2004
. “
North American First Peoples: Slipping up into Market Citizenship?
Citizenship Studies
8
, no.
4
:
349
65
.
Altamirano-Jiménez Isabel .
2014
.
Indigenous Encounters with Neoliberalism: Place, Women, and the Environment in Canada and Mexico
. Vancouver: University of British
Columbia Press
.
Augustus Camilla .
2005
.
The Scrip Solution: The North West Metis Scrip Policy, 1885–1887
,
University of Calgary (Canada), ProQuest Dissertations Publishing
.
Auditor General of Canada
.
2011
.
June
Status Report
.
Bains Ravina .
2013
. “
Opportunities for First Nation prosperity through oil and gas development
.”
Studies in Energy Transportation, Fraser Institute
.
November
.
Bandhar Brenna .
2019
.
Colonial Lives of Property: Law, Land, and Racial Regimes of Ownership
.
Durham
:
Duke University Press
.
Barker Joanne .
2018
. “
Territory as Analytic: The Dispossession of Lenapehoking and the Subprime Crisis
.”
Social Text
, no.
135
:
19
39
.
Blackstock C.
2015
. “
Should Governments be Above the Law? The Canadian Human Rights Tribunal on First Nations Child Welfare
.”
Children Australia
40
, no.
2
:
95
104
.
Browne M. W. Robertson K.
2009
.
Benefit Sharing Agreements in British Columbia: A Guide for First Nations, Businesses, and Governments
.
Victoria, BC
:
Woodward
.
Brownlie Robin Jarvis .
2009
. “
A Persistent Antagonism: First Nations and the Liberal Order
”. In
Liberalism and Hegemony: Debating the Canadian Liberal Revolution
, edited by Constant Jean-François Ducharme Michel ,
298
321
.
Toronto
:
University of Toronto Press
.
Calder v British Columbia (AG)
[
1973
]
S.C.R. 313
.
Carter Sarah .
1993
.
Lost Harvests: Prairie Indian Reserve Farmers and Government Policy
.
Montreal
:
McGill-Queen’s University Press
.
Cattelino Jessica .
2005
.
Tribal Gaming and Indigenous Sovereignty, With Notes from Seminole Country, 46 AM
.
STUD
.
193
.
Christie Gordon .
2004
. “
Aboriginal Resource and Subsistence Rights after Delgamuukw and Marshall.
” In
Advancing Aboriginal Claims: Visions, Strategies, Directions
, edited by Wilkins Kerry ,
241
70
.
Saskatchewan
:
Purich
.
Clark Keith E.
2009
. “
Understanding the new BC resource revenue sharing policy with First Nations,
June
2009
,
McMillan LLP
.
Coates Ken Crozier Stephen .
2018
. “
Ontario, First Nations take giant step toward reconciliation with revenue-sharing deal
.”
Globe and Mail
,
May
20
.
Constitution Act, 1982, being Schedule B to the Canada Act 1982 (UK), 1982, c. 11
.
Cornell Stephen Kalt Joseph P. .
1998
. “
Sovereignty and Nation-Building: The Development Challenge in Indian Country Today
.” A
merican Indian Culture and Research Journal
22
, no.
3
:
187
214
.
Coulthard Glen Sean .
2014
.
Red Skin White Masks
.
Minneapolis
:
University of Minnesota Press
.
Daschuk James .
2013
.
Clearing the Plains: Disease, Politics of Starvation, and the Loss of Aboriginal Life
.
Regina
:
University of Regina Press
.
Day Iyko .
2015
. “
Being or Nothingness: Indigeneity, Antiblackness, and Settler Colonial Critique
.”
Critical Ethnic Studies
1
, no.
2
:
102
21
.
Delgamuukw v. British Columbia
, [
1997
]
3 S.C.R. 1010
.
Doerfler Jill .
2009
. “
An Anishinaabe Tribalography: Investigating and Interweaving Conceptions of Identity during the 1910s on the White Earth Reservation
.”
American Indian Quarterly
33
, no.
3
:
295
324
.
Du Bois W. E. B.
1986
. “
Dusk of Dawn: The Concept of Race
.” In
Du Bois Writings
, 9th ed.,
649
.
New York
:
Library of America
.
Estes Nick .
2019
.
Our History Is the Future: Standing Rock Versus the Dakota Access Pipeline, and the Long Tradition of Indigenous Resistance
.
New York
:
Verso
.
Fasken
.
2018
. “
Ontario Will Share Resource Revenue with Certain First Nations in the North
.”
May
8
. .
Gabriel Ellen .
2011
. “
Commentary Aboriginal Women’s Movement; A Quest for Self-determination
,”
Aboriginal Policy Studies
1
, no.
1
:
183
88
.
Gehl Lynn .
2000
. “
The Queen and I: Discrimination against Women in the Indian Act Continues
.”
Canadian Woman Studies
20
, no.
2
:
64
69
.
Goldstein Alyosha .
2017
. “
Race, Capitalism, and Settler-Colonialism
”. In
Race and Capitalism: Global Territories, Transnational Histories
, edited by the
Institute on Inequality and Democracy
,
41
51
.
UCLA
:
Luskin
.
High Steven .
1996
. “
Native Wage Labour and Independent Commodity Production During the ‘Era of Irrelevance.’
Labour/Le Travail
37
:
243
64
.
Hudson Peter James .
2017
. “
To Remake the World: Slavery, Racial Capitalism, and Justice
”. In
Race Capitalism Justice
, edited by Johnson Walter Kelley Robin D. G. ,
59
65
.
Boston Review, Forum 1
.
Jamieson Stuart .
1962
. “
Native Indians and the Trade Union Movement in British Columbia
.”
Human Organization
20
, no.
4
:
219
25
.
Karuka M.
2017
. “
Black and Native Visions of Self-Determination
.”
Journal of the Critical Ethnic Studies Association
3
, no.
2
:
77
98
.
Kelly Dara .
2017
. “
Feed the People and You Will Never Go Hungry: Illuminating Coast Salish Economy of Affection
.”
PhD thesis
,
University of Auckland
.
Knight Rolf .
1996
.
Indians at Work: An Informal History of Native Labour in British Columbia 1858–1930
.
Vancouver
:
New Star Books
.
Kuyek Joan .
2019
.
Unearthing Justice
.
Toronto
:
Between the Lines
.
LaDuke Winona .
1992
. “
We Are Still Here: The 500 Years Celebration
.”
Race, Poverty and the Environment
3
, no.
3
:
3
21
.
Laliberte Ron Satzewich Vic .
1999
. “
Native Migrant Labour in the Southern Alberta Sugar-Beet Industry: Coercion and Paternalism in the Recruitment of labour
.”
Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology
36
, no.
1
:
65
85
.
Luk Senwung .
2003
. “
Not So Many Hats: The Crown’s Fiduciary Obligations to Aboriginal Communities since Guerin.
Saskatchewan Law Review
76
:
1
49
.
Lutz John .
1992
. “
After the Fur Trade: The Aboriginal Labouring Class of British Columbia, 1849–1890
.”
Journal of the Canadian Historical Association
3
, no.
1
:
69
93
.
Macdougall B.
2016
. “
The Power of Legal and Historical Fiction(s): The Daniels Decision and the Enduring Influence of Colonial Ideology
.”
International Indigenous Policy Journal
7
, no.
3
:
1
6
.
Maracle Lee .
1975
.
Bobbi Lee: Indian Rebel: Struggles of a Native Canadian Woman
.
Richmond, BC
:
LSM Information Center
.
Marx Karl .
1990
.
Capital
, vol.
1
.
New York
:
Penguin
.
McGregor Deborah .
2005
. “
Traditional Ecological Knowledge: An Anishnabe Woman’s Perspective
.”
Atlantis
29
, no
2
:
103
9
.
McGregor Deborah .
2014
. “
Traditional Knowledge and Water Governance: the Ethic of Responsibility
.”
AlterNATIVE: An International Journal of Indigenous Peoples. Special Issue: Indigenous Knowledges Impacting the Environment
10
, no.
5
:
493
507
.
McGregor Deborah .
2015
2016
. “
Indigenous Women, Water Justice, and Zaagidowin (Love)
.”
Canadian Woman Studies/les cahiers de la femme
30
, nos.
2–3
.
McIvor Sharon Day Shelagh Palmater Pamela .
2018
. “
Equality Delayed Is Equality Denied
.”
Canadian Woman Studies
33
, nos.
1
2
:
171
73
McLean Kevin Karwacki Grant .
2019
. “
Meeting: Proactive Disclosure of RRS documents
.”
Unpublished interview, ENDM, Deputy Minister’s Breakout room, 5th Floor, Whitney Block, 99 Wellesley St. W. Wed
.
April
17
.
McNeil Kent .
1997
. “
How Can Infringements of the Constitutional Rights of Aboriginal Peoples Be Justified?
Constitutional Forum
8
, no.
2
:
33
39
.
McNeil Kent .
2004
. “
Continuity of Aboriginal Rights,
” In
Advancing Aboriginal Claims: Visions/Strategies/Directions
, edited by Wilkins Kerry ,
127
50
.
Saskatoon
:
Purich
.
McNeil Kent .
2015
. “
Fiduciary Obligations and Aboriginal Peoples
”. In
The Law of Trusts: A Contextual Approach
, 2nd ed., edited by Berryman Jeffrey Gillen Mark R. Woodman Faye ,
907
76
.
Toronto
:
Emond Montgomery
.
McNeil Kent .
2016
. “
Aboriginal Title and Indigenous Governance: Identifying the Holders of Rights and Authority,
Osgoode Legal Studies Research Paper Series
182
:
17
. .
Melamed Jodi .
2015
. “
Racial Capitalism,
Critical Ethnic Studies
1
no.
1
:
76
85
.
MEMD (Minister of Energy, Mines, Development)
.
2019
.
Resource Revenue Sharing
. .
Metallic Naiomi Walqwan .
2018
. “
A Human Right to Self-Government over First Nations Child and Family Services and Beyond: Implications of the Caring Society Case
.”
Journal of Law and Social Policy
28
:
4
41
.
Milloy J. S.
1991
. “
The Early Indian Acts: Development Strategies and Constitutional Change
”. In
Sweet Promises: A Reader on Indian-White Relations in Canada
, edited by Miller J. R. ,
145
56
.
Toronto
:
University of Toronto Press
.
Morse Bradford W.
1997
. “
Permafrost Rights: Aboriginal Self-Government and the Supreme Court
” in
R. v. Pamajewon. McGill Law Journal
42
, no.
4
:
1011
42
.
Palmater Pamela .
2018
. “
Canada’s Criminalization of the Indigenous Tobacco Trade
.”
Lawyer’s Daily
,
April
4
.
Panitch Leo .
1981
. “
Dependency and Class in Canadian Political Economy
.”
Studies in Political Economy
6
:
7
33
.
Pasternak Shiri .
2014
. “
Jurisdiction and Settler Colonialism: Where Do Laws Meet?
Canadian Journal of Law and Society
29
, no.
2
:
145
61
.
Pasternak Shiri .
2017a
.
Grounded Authority: the Algonquins of Barriere Lake Against the State
.
Minneapolis
:
University of Minnesota Press
.
Pasternak Shiri .
2017b
. “
Transfer payments impose permanent austerity on Indigenous communities,
Series: Resistance 150: Unsettling Canada’s Hidden Economic Apartheid, Ricochet
,
June
28
.
Pasternak Shiri Dafnos Tia .
2017
. “
How Does a Settler State Secure the Circuitry of Capital?
Environment and Planning D: Society and Space
36
, no.
4
:
739
57
.
Pendakur Kala Fiser Adam .
2017
.
Options and Opportunities: Resource Revenue Sharing Between the Crown and Indigenous Groups in Canada
.
Ottawa
:
The Conference Board of Canada
.
Perleman Michael .
2000
.
The Invention of Capitalism
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
.
Plain Sylvia .
2019
.
Anishinaabe Inaakonigewin: Indigenous Governance, Laws, and Lifeways
.
Public Event. April
8
.
Toronto City Hall
.
Povinelli Elizabeth .
2002
.
The Cunning of Recognition: Indigenous Alterities and the Making of Australian Multiculturalism
.
Durham, NC
:
Duke University Press
.
Pratt Anna C. Templeman Jessica .
2018
. “
Jurisdiction, Sovereignties and Akwesasne: Shiprider and the Re-crafting of Canada-US Cross-Border Maritime Law Enforcement
.”
Canadian Journal of Law and Society
33
, no.
3
:
335
57
.
R. v. Van der Peet
[
1996
] 2 R.C.S.
R. v. Gladstone
, [
1996
] 2 S.C.R. 723.
R. v. Marshall (No 1)
[
1999
] 3 S.C.R. 456.
R. v. Marshall (No 2)
[
1999
] 3 S.C.R. 533.
R. v. Pamajewon
[
1996
] 2 R.C.S.
Robinson Cedric .
1983
.
Black Marxism
.
London
:
Zed Books
.
Scott Dayna Nadine Boisselle Andrée .
Forthcoming
. “
If There Can Only Be ‘One Law,’ It Must Be Treaty Law: Learning from Kanawayandan D’aaki
.”
UNB Law Review
,
Special Issue on “Puzzles of Pipelines and Riddles of Resources.”
Senate Standing Committee on Aboriginal Peoples
.
2015
.
On-Reserve Housing and Infrastructure: Recommendations for Change Standing Senate Committee on Aboriginal Peoples
,
June
.
Simpson Audra .
2008
. “
Subjects of Sovereignty: Indigeneity, the Revenue Rule, and Juridics of Failed Consent
.”
Law and Contemporary Problems
71
:
191
216
.
Simpson Leanne Betasamosake .
2017
.
As We Have Always Done: Indigenous Freedom through Radical Resistance
.
Minneapolis
:
University of Minnesota Press
.
Sparrow v. R
., [
1990
] 1 S.C.R. 1075.
Statistics Canada
.
2016
.
2016 Census topic: Aboriginal peoples
: .
Todd Zoe .
2014
. “
Fish Pluralities: Human-Animal Relations and Sites of Engagement in Paulatuuq, Arctic Canada
.”
Études/Inuit/Studies
38
, nos.
1–2
:
217
38
.
Tsilhqot’in v. British Columbia, 2014, SCC 44. R. v. Van der Peet [1996] 2 R.C.S. [ Van Der Peet]
.
Waisberg L. Holzkamm T.
1993
. “
‘A Tendency to Discourage Them from Cultivating’: Ojibwa Agriculture and Indian Affairs Administration in Northwestern Ontario
.”
Ethnohistory
40
, no.
2
:
175
211
.
Wiber Melanie Milley Chris .
2007
. “
After Marshall: Implementation of Aboriginal Fishing Rights in Atlantic Canada
.”
Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law
39
, no.
55
:
163
86
.
Wilson Alex .
2015
. “
Our Coming in Stories: Cree Identity, Body Sovereignty, and Gender Self-Determination
.”
Journal of Global Indigeneity
1
, no.
1
:
1
5
.
Wilson Bobby M.
2002
. “
Critically Understanding Race-Connected Practices: A Reading of W. E. B. Du Bois and Richard Wright
.”
Professional Geographer
54
, no.
1
:
31
41
.
Wilson Gilmore Ruth .
2002
. “
Race and Globalization
”. In
Geographies of Global Change: Remapping the World
, edited by Johnston R. J. et al ,
261
74
.
New York
:
Wiley-Blackwell
.
Wilt James .
2018
. “
Canada’s Mining Giants Pay Billions Less in Taxes in Canada than Abroad
.”
Narwhal
.
July
16
.
Yazzie Melanie K.
2018
. “
Decolonizing Development in Diné Bikeyah: Resource Extraction, Anti-Capitalism, and Relational Futures
.”
Environment and Society: Advances in Research
9
:
25
39
.