In contrast to the hegemonic perspective that in Latin America seeks to read José Carlos Mariátegui as a quintessential figure in the fusion of Marxism and the national question, this essay approaches the Peruvian intellectual as an expression of cosmopolitan socialism. As the essay demonstrates, this cosmopolitanism was particularly motivated by the Russian Revolution, which for Mariátegui was both a key element in his adherence to Marxism and a powerful vector that led him to internationalize his interests and envisage a broad spectrum of cultural and political phenomena throughout the world. The press, the principal space in his intellectual education, together with literature, philosophy, and the arts from a variety of distant places, became the subjects of Mariátegui’s close attention as his field of vision expanded following the events of 1917 and were scrutinized as elements key to understanding the dynamics of the proletariat movement around the globe. Thus for this intellectual, who in a manner unparalleled in Latin America managed to superimpose political vanguardism and aesthetic vanguardism, socialism and cosmopolitanism were orientations that interacted and mutually reinforced each other.

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