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Brown middle class

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Journal Article
Small Axe (2023) 27 (2 (71)): 33–48.
Published: 01 July 2023
... instantly recognizes in his mother’s tendentious remark the perverse machinations of Brown middle-class racism, the neurotic disavowals through which she was seeking to distance him from the abject stain of Blackness and to re-install him into the hegemonic place of his social origins. And he not only...
Journal Article
Small Axe (2012) 16 (2 (38)): vii–x.
Published: 01 July 2012
... into the complexity of that Jamaican past, who is densely formed by the tragic familial regimen of color and class in the Jamaican social order at a particularly fractious moment in the political unfolding of the brown middle class's will to power. This is a figure of Stuart Hall that has nourished, by virtue...
Journal Article
Small Axe (2015) 19 (1 (46)): 1–4.
Published: 01 March 2015
... remember, and vividly, he said, was his parents' terror that they were going to be, as he put it, “murdered in their beds” by the rioting black mob. Now, this—even Stuart's conventional phrasing of it (“murdered in their beds”)—is a distinctly West Indian brown middle-class fear: the fear of being murdered...
Journal Article
Small Axe (2019) 23 (1 (58)): 52–61.
Published: 01 March 2019
... history with the life histories of three fiction writers into an effective multivoiced essay about the white, brown, and black middle classes that had access to the policy-making upper echelons of the People’s National Party. Emeritus professor of government Rupert Lewis revisits his own experiences...
Journal Article
Small Axe (2017) 21 (3 (54)): 48–62.
Published: 01 November 2017
... of a nationalist hegemony over the people. Depicting a similar middle-class cosmopolitan milieu of urban Kingston, Salkey's The Late Emancipation captures the ethnicity-based class resentments played out between Jerry Stover, the reluctant brown middle-class civil servant, and his older Chinese supervisor...
Journal Article
Small Axe (2017) 21 (3 (54)): 111–123.
Published: 01 November 2017
... Such an agenda could be seen in explorations of brownness and the search for self-representation that Belinda Edmondson identified in early Caribbean novels, which aimed to provide, she argues, a definition of creolized society that had the desire to create a naturalized brown middle class, a homogenous...
Journal Article
Small Axe (2007) 11 (1): 95–111.
Published: 01 February 2007
... over upper middle class positions previously occu- pied by the brown strata. This created serious problems for the new ruling elite, which shared values similar to those of their white predecessors. The new elite were even more determined to keep the black lower strata of society from entering...
Journal Article
Small Axe (2013) 17 (2 (41)): 1–7.
Published: 01 July 2013
... of pluralism in its various incarnations can be mapped onto the changing political fortunes of the brown middle-class leadership of the nationalist movement in Jamaica. 8 As those fortunes waxed in the middle 1950s (with the People's National Party finally in power), there was great optimism that the deep...
Journal Article
Small Axe (2017) 21 (3 (54)): 98–110.
Published: 01 November 2017
... Political Party (BMPP), steered by Rastafarian and Marxist sympathizer Sam Brown; as well as a coterie of young, left-leaning middle-class activists inside the PNP who called themselves the Young Socialist League (YSL). This assemblage, with its variant ideologies, differing policy concerns, and clashing...
Journal Article
Small Axe (2021) 25 (1 (64)): 84–101.
Published: 01 March 2021
... Stanhope, the presidential secretary. Stanhope stands in for the brown middle class, who entered the civil service under the colonial state, and Simpson represents the smart, ambitious black aspirant class newly making its way into the civil service after independence. Each of the three sections begins...
Journal Article
Small Axe (2022) 26 (3 (69)): vii–x.
Published: 01 November 2022
... commission of murder (Vice President Raymond) and attempted murder (the Brown middle-class woman Fola). Neither is completely satisfactory. The truth is nearer, more intimate. Powell is not an abstraction; he is our next of kin. The betrayal of his instinct for freedom and the responsibility for his path...
Journal Article
Small Axe (2004) 8 (2): 1–31.
Published: 01 September 2004
... representation. Huie was also in uenced by a new interest in cultural nationalism among the island s brown middle classes, which promoted the idea of a uniquely Jamaican culture. They shifted the frequently bipolar emphasis of the Garveyites and Rastafarians on Africa and of British colonialists on England...
Journal Article
Small Axe (2003) 7 (2): 159–167.
Published: 01 September 2003
...? What was the relationship of black Baptist trainees at Calabar to their white teachers, to the black men and women who attended their churches as well as those who did not, to the black and brown middle class, and to the plantocracy? We want to know more because...
Journal Article
Small Axe (2017) 21 (3 (54)): 43–47.
Published: 01 November 2017
... consummate ability to translate this political rationality into a native, that is, brown middle-class Jamaican, idiom. Now the contemporary efficacy of the story embodied in Palmer's and Bertram's books about the “birth” and “making” (respectively) of modern Jamaica depends on the extent to which...
Journal Article
Small Axe (2017) 21 (3 (54)): 152–166.
Published: 01 November 2017
... could not be decided merely on the basis of historical priority. (“In a real sense,” Nettleford wrote, “we are all of us immigrants—most of us of long-standing, but immigrants, nevertheless!” [22].) However, the brown middle class had historically seen itself as the true “sons of the soil,” being...
Journal Article
Small Axe (2017) 21 (3 (54)): 124–137.
Published: 01 November 2017
... black and brown middle class, whose bid for legitimacy depended so heavily on the status of its women.” Belinda Edmondson, Caribbean Middlebrow: Leisure Culture and the Middle Class (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2009), 60. 16 Kamau Brathwaite, “Roots” (1963), in Roots (Havana...
Journal Article
Small Axe (2003) 7 (2): 1–22.
Published: 01 September 2003
... in 1962. It is the story, in short, of the brown middle class, of their values and their hopes, their triumphs and their laments, and it is the story of the betrayals that led at length to a “false” rather than a “real” decolonization. Th e other radical story is the Marxist one...
Journal Article
Small Axe (2002) 6 (2): 25–48.
Published: 01 September 2002
... with the virtues of taste, or the nationalist ideal of a cul- tural consensus, and more with markets and money In other words, this emphasis on capitalism and consumerism is linked to the elevation of a racial identity: For the liberal and left brown middle classes of the 1970s, blackness...
Journal Article
Small Axe (2003) 7 (1): 1–16.
Published: 01 March 2003
... with elite white interests. One of the more bizarre moments in the history of beauty pageants occurred in Jamaica in 1986 when, amidst a sea of brown contestants, Lisa Mahfood, a white upper class Jamaican of Middle Eastern descent, won the Miss Jamaica title and was stoned off the stage...
Journal Article
Small Axe (2017) 21 (2 (53)): 94–111.
Published: 01 July 2017
... normative blackness in postapartheid South Africa renders the Indian illegible. 28 By making brown, working-class women visible, she critiques contemporary articulations of blackness that have become conflated with a nativist identity, defined as black African, heterosexual, middle class, and elite...