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African languages

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Journal Article
Small Axe (2023) 27 (2 (71)): 86–97.
Published: 01 July 2023
... a plethora of African languages still in use in Trinidad. Most of her informants were the grandchildren of African “recaptives” who had been taken off the slave ships intercepted by the British Navy after the abolition of the slave trade and eventually resettled in the Caribbean. Guinea’s Other Suns...
Journal Article
Small Axe (2023) 27 (2 (71)): 72–74.
Published: 01 July 2023
... languages: French Creole, Portuguese Creole, English Creole, popular languages created on the plantation. I remember her on a Saturday morning in the late 1970s, surrounded by neighborhood children, teaching them Yoruba songs—her quiet contribution to educating the children of the African diaspora about...
Journal Article
Small Axe (2023) 27 (3 (72)): 237–245.
Published: 01 November 2023
... pioneered the use of both Caribbean Creole and African-American vernacular speech in the same narrative” (158). One way to understand Edmondson’s book is as an account of the creolization of literary Creole, a history of the process whereby the everyday language of the anglophone Caribbean haltingly...
Journal Article
Small Axe (2023) 27 (3 (72)): 50–65.
Published: 01 November 2023
... in the conjunction of past, present, and future through the registers of diagnostician and participant in political mobilization. The author argues that Rodney’s analogy of the historian as medical doctor generates a critique of romantic depictions of the African past and draws on the language of Marxism to track...
Journal Article
Small Axe (2019) 23 (3 (60)): 1–17.
Published: 01 November 2019
... of African origins provided interwar black artists such as Dunham with a tantalizing possibility of Pan-African solidarity through which they could mobilize their desire for connection with an obscured past and an imagined community in the present. When Dunham found her 1930s fieldwork inevitably run aground...
Journal Article
Small Axe (2022) 26 (2 (68)): 100–107.
Published: 01 July 2022
... and the 1980s and were often borrowed from other languages. The way the terms have been and continue to be used illustrates France’s complicated and shifting relation to people of African descent, notably within its own population. In the context of culture wars that have been shaking the country in the past...
Journal Article
Small Axe (2023) 27 (2 (71)): 51–71.
Published: 01 July 2023
... 2023 by Small Axe, Inc. 2023 colonial education Yoruba language African slave indentured labor Kumina Black Power Eric Williams Kamau Brathwaite Paul Lovejoy Caribbean-oriented press Maureen Warner-Lewis, 1993, Lopez Photography, Kingston, Jamaica. Courtesy of Maureen Warner-Lewis...
FIGURES
Journal Article
Small Axe (2009) 13 (2): 218–228.
Published: 01 July 2009
... are apparently exotic or marginal peoples, such as the Saramaka Maroons of Suriname, truly part of the Caribbean world? While considering long-standing debates about African continuities vs. New World creativity, and discussing what Michel-Rolph Trouillot has called “the miracle of creolization,” the essay draws...
Journal Article
Small Axe (2023) 27 (3 (72)): 246–253.
Published: 01 November 2023
... in narrative. Edmondson’s insistence on the rootedness of Creoles in European as well as African languages is amply borne out by existing scholarship on Caribbean Creole language evolution. But this already well-documented language history occupies her less than the regional literature’s converging...
Journal Article
Small Axe (2023) 27 (3 (72)): 226–236.
Published: 01 November 2023
... is distinct in many ways, including the language question. In South Asia and Africa, for instance, there was no paucity of native languages to choose from, which explains the English or return-to-an-African-language dispute between Chinua Achebe and Ngũgĩ wa Thiong’o. 3 In the Caribbean, however...
Journal Article
Small Axe (2021) 25 (2 (65)): 16–35.
Published: 01 July 2021
... nation language from “dialect,” the speech of the plantation. Pioneering calypsonian and historian Atilla the Hun claims that the origins of the music lie in competing preemancipation field songs incorporating African language: “The leader of the gang doing the most work, would improvise songs...
FIGURES | View All (6)
Journal Article
Small Axe (2016) 20 (1 (49)): 62–78.
Published: 01 March 2016
... rebels still as “slaves” and its communities as “societies,” a cherished nomenclature that strikes a blow to Western anthropological and sociological chauvinism, to be sure. At the same time, Maroon Societies expands our languages of maroonage, multiplies our names for it, in African directions, quiet...
Journal Article
Small Axe (2023) 27 (2 (71)): 98–108.
Published: 01 July 2023
..., Africa is a geopolitical space, full of peoples, languages, and events that shape Trinidad and the contemporary Caribbean. In her work, Warner-Lewis focuses on Africans and how they lived in Trinidad, rather than Africa as mythic, distant homeland. She reveals the ways in which Africans in the Caribbean...
Journal Article
Small Axe (2001) 5 (2): 66–80.
Published: 01 September 2001
... teaching African history. * e prime minister of Jamaica, a black man (you know he looks black anyway was approached with a request to let African history and an African language, Swahili, be taught in the schools, and he said, “No, we can’t have any of that.” He gave some reason...
Journal Article
Small Axe (2023) 27 (2 (71)): 75–85.
Published: 01 July 2023
... of the circumstances of power and dispossession in which these linguistic registers encountered each other: consider the ubiquity of “massa” in the examples given throughout the text. 19 When Warner-Lewis took the advice of her postgraduate instructor Robert Le Page that she should study an African language...
Journal Article
Small Axe (2007) 11 (3): 52–72.
Published: 01 October 2007
... and identification outside of a literary tradition, powerful military, ancient buildings, or a pre-colonial culture. While there are many instances of “survivals” of African languages and customs in the Caribbean, this fragmented cultural history exists in spite of the policies of slave...
Journal Article
Small Axe (2023) 27 (3 (72)): 215–225.
Published: 01 November 2023
... of our real African language.” The very strangeness of the orthography restores the integrity of Jamaican, giving visibility to both the language and its speakers. Mr. Sewell’s “full,” the Jamaican equivalent of the English fill , fulfills an expectation of completion and closure in the transfer...
Journal Article
Small Axe (2005) 9 (2): 86–103.
Published: 01 September 2005
...”, in the section “Matin,” reveals Lemoine’s early literary awakening through instruc- axe tion in the French language (the references to Válery and Colette, for example). In the section “Midi,” Lemoine looks to Africa and, more specifi cally, to African blacks as he reinforces not only...
Journal Article
Small Axe (2022) 26 (1 (67)): 145–164.
Published: 01 March 2022
... such as drumming (“The Making of the Drum”) or jazz (“Jah”). 9 Kamau’s continuum of English to nation language is intensely sonic, drawing on the resources of drum language and the tonalities of many West African languages as well as Caribbean and world English to create a musical score. His work in effect asks...
Journal Article
Small Axe (2008) 12 (3 (27)): 151–164.
Published: 01 October 2008
.../Africa that the Lwa reside, let us hid our toutou, our ritual strength, until the time comes to dig them out again. Dove dove, a term in langaj [African languages], reinforces the idea of conserving the people’s ritual strength. . . . The Lwa come from Africa and must return...