This essay revisits the central arguments made in Red and Black in Haiti and explains their relevance in understanding Haiti's political course since the Duvalier era. The essay responds to ones by Millery Polyné and Michael Deibert1 and addresses some of the comments made by others about the book. Emphasizing the importance to Haitian history of the years following the end of the US occupation,, this essay argues that the lessons of this much overlooked past provide a useful framework for contemplating developments in Haiti after the 2010 earthquake.

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