This essay argues that before Garveyism became an ideology in its own right in 1920, and before it began its political ascent in the United States in 1919, Marcus Garvey was exposed during his sojourn in Britain, in 1913–14, to one of the most important social movements of the Edwardian era: the Brotherhood movement. From his exposure to the movement's ideology and his participation in its organizational successes, Garvey obtained the template of the Universal Negro Improvement Association, which he created on his return to Jamaica from England in mid-1914. The first attempt to tell the story of Garvey's involvement and association with the Brotherhood movement, this essay also suggests that Garvey's patrons in the movement financed his return to Jamaica but that the outbreak of World War I interrupted their support and thus the implementation of his plan for a Jamaican brotherhood movement.

You do not currently have access to this content.