This article examines the practice of “carpeteo,” or politicized police surveillance and targeted harassment, during the 2010 and 2011 student strikes at the University of Puerto Rico (UPR). LeBrón argues that police and security forces engaged in tactics that deeply resonated, for many students, with historical forms of repression experienced by political dissidents in Puerto Rico. Drawing from interviews with student activists, the author details how students culled from popular knowledge about the violent, politicized policing experienced by Puerto Rican radical movements in order to position themselves within a genealogy of repression and resistance on the island. Rather than understanding their experience as unique or unprecedented, UPR students instead situated their movement, and the policing of their movement, within historical struggles against inequality and colonial rule in Puerto Rico.

References

References
Acosta Lespier
Ivonne
.
2011
.
“Encapuchados ¿pagos por la Policía? Hora de hacer un recuento histórico para los muy jóvenes y/o los amnésicos.”
Sin Mordaza
.
January
12
. desahogoboricua.blogspot.com/2011/01/encapuchados-pagos-por-la-policia-hora.html.
Associated Press
.
1987
.
“5 in Puerto Rico Receive Sentences.”
New York Times
.
June
20
. www.nytimes.com/1987/06/20/us/5-in-puerto-rico-receive-sentences.html.
Blanco-Rivera
Joel A.
2005
.
“The Forbidden Files: Creation and Use of Surveillance Files against the Independence Movement in Puerto Rico.”
American Archivist
68
, no.
2
:
297
311
.
Bonilla
Yarimar
Martínez
Rafael Boglio
.
2010
.
“Puerto Rico in Crisis: Government Workers Battle Neoliberal Reform.”
NACLA [North American Congress on Latin America] Report on the Americas
43
, no.
1
:
6
8
.
Bosque-Pérez
Ramón
.
2006
.
“Political Persecution against Puerto Rican Anti-Colonial Activists in the Twentieth Century.”
In
Puerto Rico under Colonial Rule: Political Persecution and the Quest for Human Rights
, edited by
Bosque-Perez
Ramón
Morrea
José Javier Colón
,
13
47
.
Albany
:
State University of New York Press
.
Campamento Contra La Junta
.
Facebook
. https://www.facebook.com/CampamentoContraLaJunta/?fref=ts.
Cancel Miranda
Rafael
.
2010
.
“Mensaje Rafael Cancel Miranda a estudiantes en huelga UPR 2010.”
YouTube
.
May
16
. youtu.be/xF7Tb7eht-4.
Castillo
Juan Carlos
.
2015
.
“Las huelgas estudiantiles de la UPR, aquellas que se repiten y continúan (Parte 1).”
Diálogo
.
July
1
. dialogoupr.com/las-huelgas-estudiantiles-de-la-upr-aquellas-que-se-repiten-y-continuan-parte-i/.
Castillo
Juan Carlos
.
2015
.
“Las huelgas estudiantiles de la UPR, aquellas que se repiten y continúan (Parte 2).”
Diálogo
.
June
30
. dialogoupr.com/las-huelgas-estudiantiles-de-la-upr-aquellas-que-se-repiten-y-continuan-parte-ii/.
Cruz Crespo
Cacimar
.
2014
.
Solidaridad obrero-estudiantil: Las huelgas de 1973 y 1976 en la Universidad de Puerto Rico
.
San Juan
:
Fundación Francisco Manrique Cabrera
.
Cunningham
David
.
2005
.
There's Something Happening Here: The New Left, the Klan, and FBI Counterintelligence
.
Berkeley
:
University of California Press
.
Dávila
Jesús
.
2011
.
“UPR: Testigos de operación encubierta en motín.”
Puerto Rico Indymedia
.
March
14
. pr.indymedia.org/news/2011/03/48016.php.
Democracy Now
.
2016
.
“Special Report: Voices from Puerto Rico's Students Leading an Anti-Austerity Movement.”
April
06
. www.democracynow.org/2016/4/6/special_report_voices_from_puerto_ricos.
Diálogo UPR
.
2011
.
“El estudiante Ian Camilo Cintrón habla sobre su arresto.”
YouTube
.
January
21
. www.youtube.com/watch?v=90hVeM7UqxM.
Diálogo
.
2011
.
”Agresiones y arrestos en el Recinto de Río Piedras.”
Diálogo
,
January
25
. http://dialogoupr.com/noticia/upr/a-la-expectativa-el-recinto-de-rio-piedras/.Diálogo.
2011
.
“La polémica (en)capucha(da).” January 28
. dialogoupr.com/opinion-y-debate/la-polemica-encapuchada/.
Foucault
Michel
.
1984
.
“Nietzsche, Genealogy, History.”
In
The Foucault Reader
, edited by
Rabinow
Paul
,
76
100
.
New York
:
Pantheon
.
Foucault
Michel
.
1995
.
Discipline and Punish
.
New York
:
Vintage
.
Gautier Mayoral
Carmen
Stahl
Teresa Blanco
.
1997
.
“COINTELPRO en Puerto Rico: Documentos secretos del FBI.”
In
Las Carpetas: Persecución política y derechos civiles en Puerto Rico
, edited by
Bosque-Pérez
Ramón
Morera
José Javier Colón
,
255
97
.
Río Piedras, Puerto Rico
:
Centro para la Investigación y Promoción de los Derechos Civiles, Inc.
González Berdecía
Andrés
.
2010
.
“La represión como respuesta,”
Desde adentro
.
May
25
. rojogallito.blogspot.com/2010/05/la-represion-como-respuesta.html.
Hernández
Maribel
.
2010
.
“La policía está ‘documentando’ las manifestaciones de la UPR.”
Primera Hora
.
December
17
. www.primerahora.com/noticias/gobierno-politica/nota/lapoliciaestadocumentandolasmanifestacionesdelaupr-454609/.
LeBrón
Marisol
.
2015
.
“Policing Solidarity: State Violence, Blackness, and the University of Puerto Rico Strikes.”
Souls: A Journal of Black Politics, Culture and Society
17
, nos.
1–2
:
113
34
.
“Ley Especial Declarando Estado de Emergencia Fiscal y Estableciendo Plan Integral de Estabilización Fiscal para Salvar el Crédito de Puerto Rico.”
Ley Núm. 7 del año 2009
,
(P. de la C. 1326)
.
Navarro
Mireya
.
2003
.
“New Light on Old F.B.I. Fight; Decades of Surveillance of Puerto Rican Groups.”
New York Times
.
November
28
.
Paralitici
José
.
2011
.
La represión contra el independentismo puertorriqueño: 1960–2010
.
Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico
:
Publicaciones Gaviota
.
Primera Hora
.
2010
.
“Rivera Schatz recomienda protestar contra los que ‘se dieron vida de ricos’ con fondos de UPR.”
December
14
. www.primerahora.com/noticias/gobierno-politica/nota/riveraschatzrecomiendaprotestarcontralosquesedieronvidadericosconfondosdeupr-452802/.
Primera Hora
.
2010
.
“Estudiantes marchan en silencio—Minuto a minuto.”
December
16
. www.primerahora.com/noticias/gobierno-politica/nota/estudiantesmarchanensilenciominutoaminuto-453205/.
Primera Hora
.
2011
.
“Fuerza de Choque arresta a 49 manifestantes en la UPR.”
January
20
. www.primerahora.com/noticias/gobierno-politica/nota/fuerzadechoquearrestaa49manifestantesenlaupr-464544/.
Olivero Lora
Ricardo
.
2010
.
“Primera Transmisión de Radio Huelga.”
Rebelión
.
May
2
,
2010
. www.rebelion.org/noticia.php?id=106546.
Ruiz
Carmelo
.
2016
.
“The New Wave of Repression in Puerto Rico.”
CounterPunch
.
May
6
. www.counterpunch.org/2016/05/06/the-new-wave-of-repression-in-puerto-rico/.
Gallito
Rojo
.
2011
.
“Estudiantes repudian la violencia.”
Desde adentro
.
January
12
. rojogallito.blogspot.com/2011/01/estudiantes-repudian-la-violencia.html.
Santiago-Valles
Kelvin A.
1994
.
Subject People and Colonial Discourses: Economic Transformation and Social Disorder in Puerto Rico, 1898–1947
.
Albany
:
State University of New York Press
.
Suarez
Manuel
.
2003
.
Two Lynchings on Cerro Maravilla: The Police Murders in Puerto Rico and the Federal Government Cover Up
.
San Juan
:
Editorial Instituto de Cultura Puertorriqueña
.
This content is only available as a PDF.

Author notes

Marisol LeBrón is an assistant professor in the Department of American Studies at Dickinson College. She is currently the 2015–17 postdoctoral associate in the Program in Latino/a Studies in the Global South at Duke University. Her research and teaching focus on social inequality, policing, violence, and protest movements in Puerto Rico and US communities of color. She is at work on her first book, which examines the growth of punitive governance in contemporary Puerto Rico.