This review examines four works on revolutionary Haiti: Laurent Dubois's Haiti: The Aftershocks of History (2012); John D. Garrigus's Before Haiti: Race and Citizenship in French Saint-Domingue (2006); Philippe R. Girard's The Slaves Who Defeated Napoleon: Toussaint L'Ouverture and the Haitian War of Independence, 1801 – 1804 (2011); and Jeremy Popkin's You Are All Free: The Haitian Revolution and the Abolition of Slavery (2010).

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