Animated film is one of the principal aesthetic forms through which modern societies engage with the agency of nonhumans and objects. Beyond their particular themes or characters, animated films rely as a matter of principle on setting objects in motion; this principle has close affinities with environmentalist perspectives that attribute value, animatedness, and agency to the natural world. Such affinities emerge even in nonenvironmentalist animated films in the United States, Western Europe, and Japan.

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