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rural/urban migration

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Journal Article
positions (2010) 18 (1): 253–277.
Published: 01 February 2010
... recorded an abnormally low level of urbanization, with less than a quarter of its population engaged in nonagricultural activi- ties that took place mainly in rural market towns. Nanhai did not even have a county town in the years before...
Journal Article
positions (2015) 23 (3): 411–435.
Published: 01 August 2015
..., and Work Rewards in Urban China,” International Sociology 14, no. 4 (1999): 423 – 41; Zhao Yaohui, “Labor Migration and Returns to Rural Education in China,” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 79, no. 4 (1997): 1278 – 87. 18...
Journal Article
positions (2022) 30 (3): 549–570.
Published: 01 August 2022
... three decades of massive internal migration. Caught between entrenched rural-urban divides and regional disparities, millions of migrant workers are stuck in low-paying jobs, deprived of social security, and subject to widespread discrimination (Solinger 1999 ; Chan and Zhang 1999 ; Swider 2015...
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Journal Article
positions (2022) 30 (3): 479–499.
Published: 01 August 2022
... Agricultural Development .” Modern China 38 , no. 2 : 139 – 73 . Jacka Tamara , and Gaetano Arianne , eds. 2004 . On the Move: Women and Rural-to-Urban Migration in Contemporary China . New York : Columbia University Press . O'Donnell Mary Ann . 2008 . “ Vexed Foundations...
Journal Article
positions (2003) 11 (3): 613–646.
Published: 01 August 2003
... place against the backdrop of increasing rural-to-urban migration in China in recent years. Since the late 1970s when China started its reform, millions of peasants had crossed the once rigid rural-urban boundary to seek jobs or self-employment...
Journal Article
positions (2022) 30 (1): 9–34.
Published: 01 February 2022
... Kam Wing , and Zhang Li . 1999 . “ The Hukou System and Rural-Urban Migration in China: Processes and Changes .” China Quarterly 160 : 818 – 55 . Chen Da . 1935 . Renkou wenti ( The Problem of Population ). Shanghai : Commercial Press . Chen Hansheng (Chen Han...
Journal Article
positions (2022) 30 (3): 595–617.
Published: 01 August 2022
... to a nomadic culture among rural migrants as they strategically become mobile and replaceable, rather than claiming rights or authority over their communities. China's market reforms and integration into the global economy have stimulated massive rural to urban migration (Liang 2001 , 2016 ; Yan 2008...
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Journal Article
positions (2017) 25 (1): 173–194.
Published: 01 February 2017
... Athithi (Guest, dir. K. P. Kumaran, 1975) presents us with a chasm between the rural and the urban in condensed spatial terms. The film is about a family of four who eagerly awaits the arrival of a man from Bombay. The house indicates a static...
Journal Article
positions (2022) 30 (3): 641–644.
Published: 01 August 2022
... on Shanghai's Edge (2020), offers the first longitudinal study of China's second-generation rural-to-urban migrants. She is now working on a second book project examining socioecological transformation in migrant-sending villages after decades of massive labor migration and state-led urbanizing policies...
Journal Article
positions (2009) 17 (3): 617–642.
Published: 01 August 2009
....   7. Tamara Jacka, Rural Women in Urban China: Gender, Migration, and Social Change (Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 2006), 108.   8. Emily Honig, Creating Chinese Ethnicity: Subei People in Shanghai, 1850–1980 (New Haven: Yale...
Journal Article
positions (2014) 22 (3): 543–550.
Published: 01 August 2014
... are thus legally restricted.5 Since then, the urbanrural divide has been further concretized, in law at least, with the hukou system remaining in effect up until today. Since the reform era began, however, migration of workers holding...
Journal Article
positions (2019) 27 (4): 773–798.
Published: 01 November 2019
... controlled up to the mid- 1980s, until the recovering economy and privatization stimu- lated by the Reform enlarged the demand for labor force in urban areas. It sparked the largest scale of rural- to- urban population migration in Chinese history. While the central government still attempted to supervise...
Journal Article
positions (2011) 19 (2): 439–462.
Published: 01 May 2011
... explicitly project the image that Southeast Asian women migrants, including Filipinas, are working in Japan solely for the yen.36 She contends that women in the region have for several decades par- ticipated in ruralurban migration to work...
Journal Article
positions (2004) 12 (1): 7–69.
Published: 01 February 2004
... structures of the rural and urban systems remained unchanged. This gave rise to the expansion of the rural-urban income gap, and both accelerated the migration of the rural population to the cities and simultaneously encouraged a wider segment...
Journal Article
positions (1999) 7 (2): 343–375.
Published: 01 May 1999
... production can be greatly liberated and developed. -Li Youwei, former Shenzhen Communist Party secretary Rural-Urban Relations in Shenzhen Since its founding, the Shenzhen Special Economic Zone (SEZ) has been represented both...
Journal Article
positions (2022) 30 (3): 411–427.
Published: 01 August 2022
... relationships among land, labor, and capital, which are often overshadowed by narratives of rural-to-urban development in postsocialist contexts. More specifically, urban villages allow us to examine how the capitalist drive for profit and the continuing institutional legacy of the Maoist regime work as two...
Journal Article
positions (2022) 30 (4): 815–838.
Published: 01 November 2022
.... https://www.wilsoncenter.org/publication/explaining-north-korean-migration-to-china . Zhang Lu . ( 2010 ) 2011. Dooman River . Seoul : CGV . Zhou Hui , and Zhu Ling . 2019 . “  ‘Two Chinas’: Social Equity, Social Policies, and the Urban-Rural Divide in China .” In Social...
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Journal Article
positions (2022) 30 (2): 377–407.
Published: 01 May 2022
... from the countryside who left in search of education and work opportunities (Jung 2017 ). Rural to urban migration in South Korea set in motion regional imbalances (Jung 2017 ) that would later differentially impact younger populations (Jeon 2012 ). After decades of authoritarian control, South...
Journal Article
positions (2022) 30 (3): 619–640.
Published: 01 August 2022
... in Beijing's urban cores. Rural homes lose meaning as almost every piece of land is transformed into real estate property. Moreover, villagers like Old Wang's family choose to migrate for better resourced, more competitive education in downtown areas. Old Wang's granddaughter was one of the three local...
FIGURES
Journal Article
positions (2017) 25 (4): 769–794.
Published: 01 November 2017
...- nomic inequality, rural-­to-­urban migration, government corruption, and corporate labor exploitation — features that are hardly specific to Thailand. Thus, this article seeks to explain the US antitrafficking movement’s per- sistent...