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ruler

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Journal Article
positions (1996) 4 (2): 185–215.
Published: 01 May 1996
..., the traditional Chinese view of the ideal relationship between government and people is analogous to that which should exist between parents and children or between a shepherd and his flock. The actions of both parties should be in strict accordance with a moral code, under which the rulers of a society, who...
Journal Article
positions (2011) 19 (3): 707–721.
Published: 01 August 2011
... to power. The plan to install him as the ruler of the world had commenced before he was even born, with the contention of long- dead scholars that the world required an enlightened prince. It had pro- ceeded with . . . an alliance of scholars...
Journal Article
positions (2013) 21 (3): 637–658.
Published: 01 August 2013
..., as the economist F. A. Hayek once wrote, coins “served . . . largely as the symbols of might, like the flag, through which the ruler asserted his sovereignty, and told his people who their master was whose image the coins carried to the remotest parts of his...
Journal Article
positions (2004) 12 (2): 457–478.
Published: 01 May 2004
... is not disputed here. In the late period, in particular, the Japanese rulers annually forced hundreds of thousands of people into forced labor, and hundreds were taken in Japan’s notorious 731 Unit for bacteriological experiment.8 What...
Journal Article
positions (2000) 8 (1): 179–200.
Published: 01 February 2000
... who “they” are who have destroyed our natural and ecological environ- ment. Is it not our big financial groups? Not our rulers? Or was it not “our” immigrant ancestors? positions 8:1 Spring 2000 188...
Journal Article
positions (2012) 20 (4): 1041–1066.
Published: 01 November 2012
... but also the contiguity of the hybrid spaces shared by Western-­educated rulers of postcolonial societies and intellectual elites returning from the West. It points to a kernel of dis- comfort driving the articulation of Asian values. I do...
Journal Article
positions (1993) 1 (2): 321–348.
Published: 01 May 1993
... interested in performance? In studies of Chinese Zi, institu- tional historians have emphasized ceremonial performance with far less attention to meaning. Treating Zi as a code for conduct, they explain the coherent systems developed by rulers...
Journal Article
positions (1996) 4 (2): 253–289.
Published: 01 May 1996
...)or celestial beings (xian) by passing through trials (guoguan). Unlike gods or apotheosized humans, they are not granted their powers by the heavenly ruler, the Jade Emperor (Yuhuang Dadi), but must pass trials or work to achieve them. Trials...
Journal Article
positions (1993) 1 (3): 779–804.
Published: 01 August 1993
... Zhejiang society, which held that the defense of the Han against the barbarians (Yi Xia) was as important as the righteousness of a ruler Certainly Han exclusivism seems to have reached its height by the late eighteenth century, when...
Journal Article
positions (2021) 29 (2): 267–290.
Published: 01 May 2021
... of the gentleman with a whiff of parody. Zheng Sounding the Ineffable 273 One s ability to compose a fu on the spot after one climbs high was considered a hallmark of the gentleman in Confucian discourse, akin to the act of advising a ruler in court with eloquent speech (Ban 1955: 49).8 Cao Cao (155 220...
Journal Article
positions (1995) 3 (2): 306–328.
Published: 01 May 1995
... change in accordance to changes in the outside world? How could the lifeless ashes of history choke the intelligence of youth? Shinan Yiliao went to see the ruler of Lu who was very sad in countenance...
Journal Article
positions (1993) 1 (2): 526–549.
Published: 01 May 1993
... in their vision of world history. In many parts of the world, historical writing began as a means of legitimizing the power of the ruling family. By tracing the descent of contemporary rulers from ancient gods or heroes (real or mythical), historians...
Journal Article
positions (1997) 5 (1): 73–108.
Published: 01 February 1997
... Koreans and Japanese during the war? Again, the colonial ruler and the colonized subject are presented as occu- pying the same position. This depiction of the sameness or commonness neutralizes the dominant-subordinate power relationship...
Journal Article
positions (2019) 27 (4): 623–652.
Published: 01 November 2019
... is as powerful as his rhetoric, based on which He Qiaoyuan would form his ethical understanding of the Ming Empire. In He Qiaoyuan s narration of Ming- Java relations, the moral power of benevolence immanent in the emperor s words also saliently contrasts with the immoral character innate to the Javanese ruler s...
Journal Article
positions (2020) 28 (4): 789–814.
Published: 01 November 2020
... confronted with the suggestion that a good ruler should plough the eld like the common people, Mencius countered with the argument that natural order dictated division of labor between rulers and the ruled. He (2009: 56) recounted that when human civilization was decimated with ood water and the prints...
Journal Article
positions (2018) 26 (1): 111–150.
Published: 01 February 2018
... as a political institution, existing within a “dual theory of sovereignty” alongside an indigenous Nguyen ∣∣ South Vietnamese Spy Fiction 145 ideal of the ruler as vua: “The other major term for ruler was an indigenous...
Journal Article
positions (2002) 10 (3): 631–668.
Published: 01 August 2002
... whose purpose is to bring diverse individuals into harmony.25 In contrast to this, Ishimoda understands the state as the ruler’s power structure. For him the Heroic Age is essentially incompatible with the positions 10:3 Winter 2002...
Journal Article
positions (2011) 19 (3): 739–761.
Published: 01 August 2011
..., or a solace for the Han in the face of military defeat by alien con- querors. Historically, it is the ethnically non- Han rulers who made use of sinicization — including mass Chinese immigrations to ethnic regions in order to expand and sustain...
Journal Article
positions (2007) 15 (2): 369–401.
Published: 01 May 2007
... inversion.” His discussion of monetary circulation in Capital, volume 3, points out that the ruler exists only in relation to the ruled, just as the teacher exists only in relation to the student. Similarly, money has meaning only with reference...
Journal Article
positions (1998) 6 (3): 675–705.
Published: 01 August 1998
..., were established in 1826 as the fourth presidency of India. Uninhabited Penang had been acquired by the East India Company in 1786. Singapore had followed in 1819when Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles signed a treaty with the local ruler...