Although literature and logic share a number of surprising symmetries and historical contacts, they have typically been seen to occupy separate disciplinary spheres. Declaring a subfield in literary studies — logic and literature — this introduction outlines various connections between literary formalism and formal logic. It surveys historical interactions and reciprocal influences between literary and logical writers from antiquity through the twentieth century, and it examines how literary theory and criticism have been institutionally shadowed by a logical unconscious, from the New Criticism and (post)structuralism to recent debates about historicism and formalism. It further considers how the subfield of logic and literature, in its constitutive attention to form, is neatly positioned to cut across these debates, and it sketches ways of reading at the interface of aesthetics, philosophy of literature, and literary studies that might be energized by an appeal to logical contexts, ideas, and methods.

This content is only available as a PDF.

References

References
Abeles, Francine F.
2007
. “
Lewis Carroll’s Visual Logic
.”
History and Philosophy of Logic
28
, no.
1
:
1
17
.
Lille, Alain de. (c.
1202
)
1980
.
The Plaint of Nature
, translated by Sheridan, James J..
Toronto
:
Pontifical Institute of Medieval Studies
.
Altieri, Charles.
1976
. “
Wittgenstein on Consciousness and Language: A Challenge to Derridean Theory
.”
Modern Language Notes
91
, no.
6
:
1397
423
.
Altieri, Charles.
2001
. “
Taking Lyrics Literally: Teaching Poetry in a Prose Culture
.”
New Literary History
32
, no.
2
:
259
81
.
Altieri, Charles.
2007
. “
Tractatus Logico-Poeticus
.”
Critical Inquiry
33
, no.
3
:
527
42
.
Altieri, Charles.
2015
.
Reckoning with the Imagination: Wittgenstein and the Aesthetics of Literary Experience
.
Ithaca, NY
:
Cornell University Press
.
Aristotle
.
1987
.
Poetics
, translated by Janko, Richard.
Indianapolis
:
Hackett
.
Arnold, Richard.
2006
.
Logic of the Fall: Right Reason and [Im]pure Reason in Milton’s Paradise Lost
.
New York
:
Peter Lang
.
Averroes
. (c.
1150
)
1977
. “
Short Commentary on Aristotle’s Poetics
.” In
Averroes’s Three Short Commentaries on Aristotle’s “Topics,” “Rhetoric,” and “Poetics,”
translated by Butter-worth, Charles E.,
79
84
.
Albany
:
State University of New York Press
.
Azad, Yusef.
1988
. “
The Limits of the University: The Study of Language in Some British Universities and Academies, 1750–1800
.” In
History of Universities
, vol.
7
, edited by Brockliss, Laurence,
117
47
.
Oxford
:
Oxford University Press
.
Bagehot, Walter.
1873
. “
The Late Mr. Mill
.”
Economist
31
, no.
1551
:
588
89
.
Banfield, Ann.
2000
.
The Phantom Table: Woolf, Fry, Russell, and the Epistemology of Modernism
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Barthes, Roland. (
1966
)
1987
.
Criticism and Truth
, translated by Keuneman, Katrine Pilcher.
Minneapolis
:
University of Minnesota Press
.
Beardsley, Monroe. (
1958
)
1981
.
Aesthetics: Problems in the Philosophy of Criticism
.
New York
:
Harcourt, Brace
.
Blevins, Jeffrey.
2017
. “
Absolutism, Relativism, Atomism: The ‘Small Theories’ of T.S. Eliot
.”
Journal of Modern Literature
40
, no.
2
:
94
111
.
Bocheński, I. M.
1961
.
A History of Formal Logic
, translated by Thomas, Ivo.
Notre Dame, IN
:
University of Notre Dame Press
.
Boole, George. (
1847
)
1998
.
The Mathematical Analysis of Logic: Being an Essay towards a Calculus of Deductive Reasoning
.
Bristol, UK
:
Thoemmes
.
Boole, George. (
1854
)
1958
.
An Investigation of the Laws of Thought on Which Are Founded the Mathematical Theories of Logic and Probabilities
.
Mineola, NY
:
Dover
.
Boole, George. (
1857
)
2012
. “
On the Application of the Theory of Probabilities to the Question of the Combination of Testimonies or Judgments
.” In
Studies in Logic and Probability
,
308
85
.
Mineola, NY
:
Dover
.
Boyce, Kristin.
2010
. “
Literature, Logic, and the Liberating Word: The Elucidation of Confusion in Henry James
.”
Journal of Philosophical Research
35
:
43
88
.
Brooks, Cleanth. (
1947
)
1970
.
The Well Wrought Urn: Studies in the Structure of Poetry
.
New York
:
Harcourt, Brace
.
Campe, Rüdiger. (
2002
)
2012
.
The Game of Probability: Literature and Calculation from Pascal to Kleist
, translated by Wiggins, Ellwood H.Jr.
Stanford, CA
:
Stanford University Press
.
Carroll, Lewis. (
1886, 1896
)
1958
.
Mathematical Recreations of Lewis Carroll: Symbolic Logic and The Game of Logic (Both Books Bound as One)
.
New York
:
Dover
.
Cartlidge, Neil trans.
2001
.
The Owl and the Nightingale: Text and Translation
.
Liverpool
:
Liverpool University Press
.
Cavell, Stanley. (
1969
)
2002
.
Must We Mean What We Say?
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Cavell, Stanley. (
1979
)
1999
.
The Claim of Reason: Wittgenstein, Skepticism, Morality, and Tragedy
.
Oxford
:
Oxford University Press
.
Chesterton, G. K. (
1911
)
1988
. “
Two Kinds of Paradox
.” In
The Collected Works of G.K. Chesterton
, vol.
29
, edited by Clipper, Lawrence J.,
51
54
.
San Francisco
:
Ignatius
.
Childs, Donald J.
2013
.
The Birth of New Criticism: Conflict and Conciliation in the Early Work of William Empson, I. A. Richards, Laura Riding, and Robert Graves
.
Montreal
:
McGill-Queen’s University Press
.
Clark, D. L.
1948
.
John Milton at St Paul’s School: A Study of Ancient Rhetoric in English Renaissance Education
.
New York
:
Columbia University Press
.
Cohen, Ralph ed.
1988
. “
Wittgenstein and Literary Theory
.” Special issue,
New Literary History
19
, no.
2
.
Constable, John.
1990
. “
I. A. Richards, T.S. Eliot, and the Poetry of Belief
.”
Essays in Criticism
40
, no.
3
:
222
43
.
Culler, Jonathan.
1975
.
Structuralist Poetics: Structuralism, Linguistics, and the Study of Literature
.
Ithaca, NY
:
Cornell University Press
.
Dannenberg, Hilary P.
2008
.
Coincidence and Counterfactuality: Plotting Time and Space in Narrative Fiction
.
Lincoln
:
University of Nebraska Press
.
Daston, Lorraine.
1988
.
Classical Probability in the Enlightenment
.
Princeton, NJ
:
Princeton University Press
.
Dauber, Kenneth; Jost, Walter eds.
2003
.
Ordinary Language Criticism: Literary Thinking after Cavell after Wittgenstein
.
Chicago
:
Northwestern University Press
.
De Morgan, Augustus. (
1847
)
2014
.
Formal Logic: The Calculus of Inference, Necessary and Probable
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Derrida, Jacques. (
1967
)
1998
.
Of Grammatology
, translated by Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty, corrected ed.
Baltimore, MD
:
Johns Hopkins University Press
.
Derrida, Jacques. (
1972
)
1981
.
Dissemination
, translated by Johnson, Barbara.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Derrida, Jacques.
1980
. “
The Law of Genre
,” translated by Ronell, Avital.
Critical Inquiry
7
, no.
1
:
55
81
.
Doležel, Lubomír.
2000
.
Heterocosmica: Fiction and Possible Worlds
.
Baltimore, MD
:
Johns Hopkins University Press
.
Dutilh Novaes, Catarina; Read, Stephen, eds.
2016
.
The Cambridge Companion to Medieval Logic
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Eco, Umberto.
1979
. “
Lector in Fabula: Pragmatic Strategy in a Metanarrative Text
.” In
The Role of the Reader: Explorations in the Semiotics of Texts
,
200
260
.
Bloomington
:
Indiana University Press
.
Eco, Umberto; Sebeok, Thomas A., eds.
1983
.
The Sign of Three: Dupin, Holmes, Peirce
.
Bloomington
:
Indiana University Press
.
Eden, Berna Kılıç.
1998
.
John Venn’s Evolutionary Logic of Chance
.
Berlin
:
Max-Planck-Institut für Wissenschaftsgeschichte
.
Ehninger, Douglas.
1963
. “
Campbell, Blair, and Whately Revisited
.”
Southern Speech Journal
28
, no.
3
:
169
82
.
Eliot, T. S.
2014
.
The Perfect Critic: 1919–1926. Vol. 2 of The Complete Prose of T.S. Eliot
, edited by Schuchard, Ronald; Cuda, Anthony.
Baltimore, MD
:
Johns Hopkins University Press
.
Eliot, T. S.
2015
.
Literature, Politics, Belief: 1927–1929. Vol. 3 of The Complete Prose of T.S. Eliot
, edited by Schuchard, Ronald; Dickey, Frances; Formichelli, Jennifer.
Baltimore, MD
:
Johns Hopkins University Press
.
Elton, William ed.
1954
.
Aesthetics and Language
.
Oxford
:
Blackwell
.
Falkenstein, Lorne; Easton, Patricia.
1997
.
Preface to Logic and the Workings of Mind: The Logic of Ideas and Faculty Psychology in Early Modern Philosophy
, edited by Falkenstein, Lorne; Easton, Patricia,
i
iii
.
Atascadero, CA
:
Ridgeview
.
Franklin, J. Jeffrey.
1999
.
Serious Play: The Cultural Form of the Nineteenth-Century Realist Novel
.
Philadelphia
:
University of Pennsylvania Press
.
Franklin, James.
2001
.
The Science of Conjecture: Evidence and Probability before Pascal
.
Baltimore, MD
:
Johns Hopkins University Press
.
Frege, Gottlob. (
1892
)
1948
. “
Sense and Reference
.”
Philosophical Review
57
, no.
3
:
213
14
.
Fry, Paul H.
2000
. “
I. A. Richards
.” In
Modernism and the New Criticism, vol. 7 of The Cambridge History of Literary Criticism
, edited by Litz, A. Walton; Menand, Louis; Rainey, Lawrence,
181
99
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Fry, Roger. (
1909
)
1996
. “
The Post-impressionists — II
.” In
A Roger Fry Reader
, edited by Reed, Christopher,
90
94
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Furlani, Andre.
2015
.
Beckett after Wittgenstein
.
Evanston, IL
:
Northwestern University Press
.
Gabbay, Dov M.; Woods, John, eds.
2004-14
.
Handbook of the History of Logic
.
11 vols
.
Amsterdam
:
Elsevier
.
Gabbay, Dov M.; Woods, John, eds.
2004
.
Greek, Indian, and Arabic Logic
.
Vol. 1 of Gabbay and Woods 2004–14
.
Gabbay, Dov M.; Woods, John, eds.
2008
.
Mediaeval and Renaissance Logic
.
Vol. 2 of Gabbay and Woods 2004–14
.
Gallagher, Catherine.
2018
.
Telling It like It Wasn’t: The Counterfactual Imagination in History and Fiction
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Galloway, Andrew.
1992
. “
Piers Plowman and the Schools
.”
Yearbook of Langland Studies
6
:
89
107
.
Ganeri, Jonardon.
2001
.
Indian Logic: A Reader
.
New York
:
Routledge
.
Garber, Daniel; Zabell, Sandy L..
1979
. “
On the Emergence of Probability
.”
Archive for History of Exact Sciences
21
, no.
1
:
33
53
.
Genette, Gérard. (
1968
)
2001
. “
Vraisemblance and Motivation
,” translated by Gorman, David.
Narrative
9
, no.
3
:
239
58
.
Gibson, John; Huemer, Wolfgang, eds.
2004
.
The Literary Wittgenstein
.
London
:
Routledge
.
Gigerenzer, Gerd; Swijtink, Zeno; Porter, Theodore; Daston, Lorraine; Beatty, John; Kruger, Lorenz.
1989
.
The Empire of Chance: How Probability Changed Science and Everyday Life
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Graff, Gerald.
1987
.
Professing Literature: An Institutional History
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Graves, Robert.
1925
. “
The Illogical Element in Poetry
.” In
Poetic Unreason
,
117
38
.
London
:
Cecil Palmer
.
Greene, Virginie.
2014
.
Logical Fictions in Medieval Literature and Philosophy
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Grener, Adam; Rosenthal, Jesse, eds.
2017
. “
Narrative against Data in the Victorian Novel
.” Special issue,
Genre
50
, no.
1
.
Griffiths, Devin.
2016
.
The Age of Analogy: Science and Literature between the Darwins
.
Baltimore, MD
:
Johns Hopkins University Press
.
Haaparanta, Leila, ed.
2009
.
The Development of Modern Logic
.
Oxford
:
Oxford University Press
.
Hacking, Ian. (
1975
)
2006
.
The Emergence of Probability: A Philosophical Study of Early Ideas about Probability, Induction, and Statistical Inference
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Hacking, Ian.
1990
.
The Taming of Chance
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Hagberg, Garry.
1994
.
Meaning and Interpretation: Wittgenstein, Henry James, and Literary Knowledge
.
Ithaca, NY
:
Cornell University Press
.
Hagberg, Garry.
1995
.
Art as Language: Wittgenstein, Meaning, and Aesthetic Theory
.
Ithaca, NY
:
Cornell University Press
.
Hailperin, Theodore.
2004
. “
Algebraical Logic 1685–1900
.” In
The Rise of Modern Logic: From Leibniz to Frege
,
vol. 3 of Gabbay and Woods 2004–14, 323–88
.
Hanson, James.
1872
. “
Logic and Logical Studies in England
.”
London Quarterly Review
38
, no.
77
:
301
47
.
Henderson, Andrea.
2014
. “
Symbolic Logic and the Logic of Symbolism
.”
Critical Inquiry
41
, no.
1
:
78
101
.
Henderson, Andrea.
2018
.
Algebraic Art: Mathematical Formalism and Victorian Culture
.
New York
:
Oxford University Press
.
Hilpinien, Risto.
2004
. “
Peirce’s Logic
.” In
The Rise of Modern Logic: From Leibniz to Frege
,
vol. 3 of Gabbay and Woods 2004–14, 611–58
.
Hobart, Michael E.; Richards, Joan L.
2008
. “
De Morgan’s Logic
.” In
British Logic in the Nineteenth Century
,
vol. 4 of Gabbay and Woods 2004–14, 283–329
.
Hoff, Ann K.
2010
. “
The Stein Differential: Gertrude Stein’s Mathematical Aesthetic
.”
Mosaic
43
, no.
4
:
1
17
.
Hofstadter, Douglas.
1979
.
Gödel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid
.
New York
:
Basic Books
.
Howe, Susan.
1999
.
Pierce-Arrow
.
New York
:
New Directions
.
Howe, Susan; Swensen, Cole.
2000
. “
A Dialogue
.”
Conjunctions
, no.
35
:
374
87
.
Hulme, T. E. (
1910
)
1994
. “
Romanticism and Classicism
.” In
The Collected Writings of T. E. Hulme
, edited by Csengeri, Karen,
60
71
.
Oxford
:
Clarendon
.
Igarashi, Yohei.
2015
. “
Statistical Analysis at the Birth of Close Reading
.”
New Literary History
46
, no.
3
:
485
504
.
Jacquette, Dale.
2008
. “
Boole’s Logic
.” In
British Logic in the Nineteenth Century
,
vol. 4 of Gabbay and Woods 2004–14, 331–79
.
Jordan, Julia.
2010
.
Chance and the Modern British Novel: From Henry Green to Iris Murdoch
.
London
:
Continuum
.
Joseph, Miriam.
1949
.
Shakespeare’s Use of the Arts of Language
.
Eastford, CT
:
Martino Fine Books
.
Kant, Immanuel. (
1770
)
2004
. “
The Bloomberg Logic
.” In
Lectures on Logic
, translated by Young, J. Michael,
5
250
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Kant, Immanuel. (
1781
)
1998
.
Critique of Pure Reason
, translated by Guyer, Paul; Wood, Allen W..
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Kneale, W. C.; Kneale, Martha.
1971
.
The Development of Logic
.
Oxford
:
Clarendon
.
Kramnick, Jonathan; Nersessian, Anahid.
2017a
. “
Form and Explanation
.”
Critical Inquiry
43
, no.
3
:
650
69
.
Kramnick, Jonathan; Nersessian, Anahid.
2017b
. “
Forms and Explanations: A Reply to Our Critics
.”
Critical Inquiry
44
, no.
1
:
164
74
.
Krüger, Lorenz; Daston, Lorraine J.; Heidelberger, Michael, eds.
1987
.
Ideas in History
.
Vol. 1 of The Probabilistic Revolution
.
Cambridge, MA
:
MIT Press
.
Krüger, Lorenz; Gigerenzer, Gerd; Morgan, Mary S., eds.
1987
.
Ideas in the Sciences
.
Vol. 2 of The Probabilistic Revolution
.
Cambridge, MA
:
MIT Press
.
Lamarque, Peter.
1996
. “
Logic and Criticism
.” In
Fictional Points of View
,
55
70
.
Ithaca, NY
:
Cornell University Press
.
Lamarque, Peter.
2001
. “
Criticism, Aesthetics, and Analytic Philosophy
.” In
Twentieth-Century Historical, Philosophical, and Psychological Perspectives
,
vol. 9 of The Cambridge History of Literary Criticism
, edited by Knellwolf, Christa; Norris, Christopher,
323
34
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Lamarque, Peter; Olsen, Stein Haugom(
1994
)
1997
.
Truth, Fiction, and Literature: A Philosophical Perspective
.
Oxford
:
Clarendon
.
Lee, Maurice S.
2012
.
Uncertain Chances: Science, Skepticism, and Belief in Nineteenth-Century American Literature
.
New York
:
Oxford University Press
.
Leitch, Vincent B.; Cain, William E.; Finke, Laurie A.; Johnson, Barbara E.; McGowan, John; Sharpley-Whiting, T. Denean; Williams, Jeffrey J., eds.
2010
.
The Norton Anthology of Theory and Criticism
. 2nd ed.
New York
:
W.W. Norton
.
LeMahieu, Michael.
2013
.
Fictions of Fact and Value: The Erasure of Logical Positivism in American Literature, 1945–1975
.
New York
:
Oxford University Press
.
LeMahieu, Michael; Zumhagen-Yekplé, Karen, eds.
2017
.
Wittgenstein and Modernism
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Lentricchia, Frank.
1994
.
Modernist Quartet
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Levao, Ronald.
2006
. “
Among Unequals, What Society: Paradise Lost and the Forms of Intimacy
.” In
Wolfson and Brown
2006
,
99
128
.
Levine, Caroline.
2015
.
Forms: Whole, Rhythm, Hierarchy, Network
.
Princeton, NJ
:
Princeton University Press
.
Levinson, Marjorie.
2007
. “
What Is New Formalism?
PMLA
122
, no.
2
:
558
69
.
Levinson, Marjorie.
2017
. “
Response to Jonathan Kramnick and Anahid Nersessian, ‘Form and Explanation’
.”
Critical Inquiry
44
, no.
1
:
144
55
.
Lowell, Amy.
1915
.
Some Imagist Poets
.
Boston
:
Houghton Mifflin
.
Lynch, Kathryn.
2000
.
Chaucer’s Philosophical Visions
.
Cambridge, UK
:
D.S. Brewer
.
MacKenzie, Donald A.
1981
.
Statistics in Britain, 1865–1930: The Social Construction of Scientific Knowledge
. Edinburgh: Edinburgh
University Press
.
Macpherson, Sandra.
2015
. “
A Little Formalism
.”
ELH
82
, no.
2
:
385
405
.
Martin, Wallace.
2000
. “
Criticism and the Academy
.” In
Modernism and the New Criticism
,
vol. 7 of The Cambridge History of Literary Criticism
, edited by Litz, A. Walton; Menand, Louis; Rainey, Lawrence,
269
321
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
McKerrow, Raymie E.
1987
. “
Richard Whately and the Revival of Logic in Nineteenth-Century England
.”
Rhetorica
5
, no.
2
:
163
85
.
Mill, John Stuart. (
1843
)
2006
.
A System of Logic, Ratiocinative and Inductive: Being a Connected View of the Principles of Evidence and the Methods of Scientific Investigation
.
Vols. 7–8 of Collected Works of John Stuart Mill
, edited by Robson, J. M..
Indianapolis, IN
:
Liberty Fund
.
Miller, Andrew H.
2007
. “
Lives Unled in Realist Fiction
.”
Representations
98
, no.
1
:
118
34
.
Miller, Andrew H.
2012
. “
‘A Case of Metaphysics’: Counterfactuals, Realism, Great Expectations
.”
ELH
79
, no.
3
:
773
96
.
Miller, Mark.
2004
.
Philosophical Chaucer
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Milnes, Tim.
2008
. “
Coleridge’s Logic
.” In
British Logic in the Nineteenth Century
,
vol. 4 of Gabbay and Woods 2004–14, 33–74
.
Milton, John. (
1672
)
1982
.
Artis Logicae
. In
The Complete Prose Works of John Milton
, vol.
8
, edited by Wolfe, Don M.,
216
319
.
New Haven, CT
:
Yale University Press
.
Moi, Toril.
2017
.
Revolution of the Ordinary: Literary Studies after Wittgenstein, Austin, and Cavell
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Moktefi, Amirouche.
2008
. “
Lewis Carroll’s Logic
.” In
British Logic in the Nineteenth Century
,
vol. 4 of Gabbay and Woods 2004–14
,
457
505
.
Molesworth, Jesse.
2010
.
Chance and the Eighteenth-Century Novel: Realism, Probability, Magic
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Monk, Leland.
1993
.
Standard Deviations: Chance and the Modern British Novel
.
Stanford, CA
:
Stanford University Press
.
Monk, Ray.
1991
.
Ludwig Wittgenstein: The Duty of Genius
.
New York
:
Penguin
.
Monk, Ray.
1996
.
Bertrand Russell: The Spirit of Solitude 1872–1921
.
New York
:
Free Press
.
Murray, John J.; Skulsky, Harold; Braun, Theodore D.E.
1975
. “
Hamlet and Logic
.”
PMLA
90
, no.
1
:
120
22
.
Nemoianu, Virgil.
2006
. “
Hating and Loving Aesthetic Formalism: Some Reasons
.” In
Wolfson and Brown
2006
:
49
65
.
Newsom, Robert.
1988
.
A Likely Story: Probability and Play in Fiction
.
New Brunswick, NJ
:
Rutgers University Press
.
Ogden, C. K.; Richards, I. A. (
1923
)
1989
.
The Meaning of Meaning
.
New York
:
Mariner Books
.
Olsen, Stein Haugom.
1981
. “
Literary Aesthetics and Literary Practice
.”
Mind
90
, no.
360
:
521
41
.
Pascal, Blaise. (
1658
)
1963
. “
De l’esprit géométrique
.” In
ɶuvres complètes
, edited by Lafuma, Louis,
511
15
.
Paris
:
Seuil
.
Patey, Douglas Lane.
1984
.
Probability and Literary Form: Philosophic Theory and Literary Practice in the Augustan Age
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Pavel, Thomas G.
1986
.
Fictional Worlds
.
Cambridge, MA
:
Harvard University Press
.
Perloff, Marjorie.
1996
.
Wittgenstein’s Ladder: Poetic Language and the Strangeness of the Ordinary
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Pinney, Thomas, ed.
1963
.
Essays of George Eliot
.
New York
:
Columbia University Press
.
Plato
.
1997
.
Cratylus
. In
Plato: Complete Works
, edited by Cooper, John M.; Hutchinson, D. S.,
101
56
.
Indianapolis, IN
:
Hackett
.
Puskar, Jason.
2012
.
Accident Society: Fiction, Collectivity, and the Production of Chance
.
Stanford, CA
:
Stanford University Press
.
Porter, Theodore M.
1986
.
The Rise of Statistical Thinking, 1820–1900
.
Princeton, NJ
:
Princeton University Press
.
Quigley, Megan.
2015
.
Modernist Fiction and Vagueness: Philosophy, Form, and Language
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Rahman, Shahid; Redmond, Juan.
2008
. “
Hugh MacColl and the Birth of Logical Pluralism
.” In
British Logic in the Nineteenth Century
,
vol. 4 of Gabbay and Woods 2004–14
,
533
604
.
Ransom, John Crowe.
1938
.
The World’s Body
.
New York
:
Charles Scribner’s Sons
.
Ransom, John Crowe.
1941
.
The New Criticism
.
Norfolk, CT
:
New Directions
.
Ransom, John Crowe.
1943
.
A College Primer of Writing
.
New York
:
Henry Holt and Company
.
Richards, I. A. (
1924
)
2002
.
Principles of Literary Criticism
.
London
:
Routledge
.
Richards, I. A. (
1926
)
1935
.
Science and Poetry
. 2nd ed.
London
:
Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner
.
Richards, I. A.
1929
.
Practical Criticism: A Study of Literary Judgment
.
San Diego
:
Harcourt, Brace
.
Richards, I. A.
1938
.
Interpretation in Teaching
.
New York
:
Harcourt, Brace
.
Richardson, Brian.
1997
.
Unlikely Stories: Causality and the Nature of Modern Narrative
.
Newark
:
University of Delaware Press
.
Ronen, Ruth.
1994
.
Possible Worlds in Literary Theory
.
Cambridge
:
Cambridge University Press
.
Rosenthal, Jesse.
2017
.
Good Form: The Ethical Experience of the Victorian Novel
.
Princeton, NJ
:
Princeton University Press
.
Rowe, M. W.
1996
. “
Poetry and Abstraction
.”
British Journal of Aesthetics
36
, no.
1
:
1
15
.
Ryan, Marie-Laure.
1992
.
Possible Worlds, Artificial Intelligence, and Narrative Theory
.
Bloomington
:
Indiana University Press
.
Santayana, George.
1900
. “
The Elements and Function of Poetry
.” In
Interpretations of Poetry and Religion
,
251
90
.
New York
:
Charles Scribner’s Sons
.
Schmidt, Siegfried J.
1976
. “
Literary Science as a Science of Argument
,” translated by Heath, Peter.
New Literary History
7
, no.
3
:
467
82
.
Schuurman, Paul.
2001
. “
Locke’s Logic of Ideas in Context: Content and Structure
.”
British Journal for the History of Philosophy
9
, no.
3
:
439
65
.
Shapiro, Barbara J.
1983
.
Probability and Certainty in Seventeenth-Century England: A Study of the Relationships between Natural Science, Religion, History, Law, and Literature
.
Princeton, NJ
:
Princeton University Press
.
Shenefelt, Michael; White, Heidi.
2013
.
If A, Then B: How the World Discovered Logic
.
New York
:
Columbia University Press
.
Smith, D. Vance.
2006
. “
Medieval Forma: The Logic of the Work
.” In
Wolfson and Brown
2006
:
66
79
.
Snyder, Laura.
2006
.
Reforming Philosophy: A Victorian Debate on Science and Society
.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Stein, Gertrude. (
1933
)
1998
. “
The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas
.” In
Stein: Writings 1903–1932
, edited by Stimpson, Catherine; Chessman, Harriet,
653
916
.
New York
:
Library of America
.
Steinlight, Emily.
2018
.
Populating the Novel: Literary Form and the Politics of Surplus Life
.
Ithaca, NY
:
Cornell University Press
.
Stigler, Stephen M.
1986
.
The History of Statistics: The Measurement of Uncertainty before 1900
.
Cambridge, MA
:
Harvard University Press
.
Sullivan, Peter M.
2004
. “
Leibniz’s Logic
.” In
The Rise of Modern Logic: From Leibniz to Frege
,
vol. 3 of Gabbay and Woods 2004–14
,
659
750
.
Swirski, Peter.
2010
.
Literature, Analytically Speaking: Explorations in the Theory of Interpretation, Analytic Aesthetics, and Evolution
.
Austin
:
University of Texas Press
.
Tate, Allen.
1968
.
Essays of Four Decades
.
Chicago
:
Swallow
.
Todorov, Tzvetan. (
1968
)
1977
. “
An Introduction to Verisimilitude
.” In
The Poetics of Prose
, translated by Howard, Richard,
80
88
.
Ithaca, NY
:
Cornell University Press
.
Todorov, Tzvetan.
1981
.
Introduction to Poetics
, translated by Howard, Richard.
Minneapolis
:
University of Minnesota Press
.
Tondre, Michael.
2018
.
The Physics of Possibility: Victorian Fiction, Science, and Gender
.
Charlottesville
:
University of Virginia Press
.
Turner, Frederick.
2015
. “
The Poetic Energy of the Trivium
.”
Sewanee Review
123
, no.
1
:
89
101
.
Turner, James.
2014
.
Philology: The Forgotten Origins of the Modern Humanities
.
Princeton, NJ
:
Princeton University Press
.
Underwood, Ted.
2014
. “
Theorizing Research Practices We Forgot to Theorize Twenty Years Ago
.”
Representations
127
, no.
1
:
64
72
.
Valencia, Victor Sánchez.
2004
. “
The Algebra of Logic
.” In
The Rise of Modern Logic: From Leibniz to Frege
,
vol. 3 of Gabbay and Woods 2004–14
,
389
544
.
Van Evra, James.
1984
. “
Richard Whately and the Rise of Modern Logic
.”
History and Philosophy of Logic
5
, no.
1
:
1
18
.
Van Evra, James.
2008a
. “
John Venn and Logical Theory
.” In
British Logic in the Nineteenth Century
,
vol. 4 of Gabbay and Woods 2004–14
,
507
13
.
Van Evra, James.
2008b
. “
Richard Whately and Logical Theory
.” In
British Logic in the Nineteenth Century
,
vol. 4 of Gabbay and Woods 2004–14
,
75
91
.
Venn, John. (
1866
)
1888
.
The Logic of Chance: An Essay on the Foundations and Province of the Theory of Probability
, 3rd ed.
London
:
Macmillan
.
Venn, John.
1889
.
The Principles of Empirical or Inductive Logic
.
London
:
Macmillan
.
Waldrop, Rosmarie.
1993
.
Lawn of Excluded Middle
.
New York
:
Tender Buttons
.
Wallace, David Foster. (
2003
)
2010
.
Everything and More: A Compact History of Infinity
.
New York
:
W. W. Norton
.
Walsh, W. H.
2000
. “
The Zenith of Greats
.” In
Nineteenth-Century Oxford, Part 2
,
vol. 7 of The History of the University of Oxford
, edited by Brock, M. G.; Curthoys, M. C.,
311
26
.
Oxford
:
Oxford University Press
.
Warren, Edward W., trans.
1975
.
Isagoge
, by
Porphyry the Phoenician
.
Toronto
:
Pontifical Institute of Medieval Studies
.
Whately, Richard. (
1826
)
1829
.
Elements of Logic
. 3rd ed.
London
:
B. Fellowes
.
Williams, Daniel.
2017
. “
Slow Fire: Serial Thinking and Hardy’s Genres of Induction
.”
Genre
50
, no.
1
:
19
38
.
Williams, Raymond.
1961
.
The Long Revolution
.
Cardigan
:
Parthian Books
.
Williams, Raymond. (
1976
)
2014
.
Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society
.
Oxford
:
Oxford University Press
.
Wilson, Emma Annette.
2010
. “
The Art of Reasoning Well: Ramist Logic at Work in Paradise Lost
.”
Review of English Studies
61
, no.
248
:
55
71
.
Wilson, Fred.
2008
. “
The Logic of John Stuart Mill
.” In
British Logic in the Nineteenth Century
,
vol. 4 of Gabbay and Woods 2004–14
,
229
81
.
Wimsatt, William K.
1954
.
The Verbal Icon: Studies in the Meaning of Poetry
.
Lexington
:
University Press of Kentucky
.
Winant, Johanna.
2016
. “
Explanation in Composition: Gertrude Stein and the Contingency of Inductive Reasoning
.”
Journal of Modern Literature
39
, no.
3
:
95
113
.
Wittgenstein, Ludwig. (
1922
)
1974
.
Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus
, edited and translated by Pears, D.F.; McGuinness, B.F..
London
:
Routledge and Kegan Paul
.
Wittgenstein, Ludwig.
1984
.
Culture and Value
, translated by Winch, Peter.
Chicago
:
University of Chicago Press
.
Wolfson, Susan J.
2006
.
Introduction to Wolfson and Brown 2006: 3–24
.
Wolfson, Susan J.; Brown, Marshall, eds.
2006
.
Reading for Form
.
Seattle
:
University of Washington Press
.
Woolf, Virginia. (
1927
)
1989
.
To the Lighthouse
.
New York
:
Harcourt Brace Jovanovich
.
Wright, Daniel.
2018
.
Bad Logic: Reasoning about Desire in the Victorian Novel
.
Baltimore, MD
:
Johns Hopkins University Press
.
Zhang, Dora.
2014
. “
Naming the Indescribable: Woolf, Russell, James, and the Limits of Description
.”
New Literary History
45
, no.
1
:
51
70
.
This content is made freely available by the publisher. It may not be redistributed or altered. All rights reserved.