This short article suggests a revision of the hierarchical levels of focalization and narration. It argues that greater precision in distinguishing degrees of both narrators' and characters' involvement in these distinct processes will result in a more flexible and more adequate typology. To achieve this purpose, the well-known systems of narrative situations in Bal 1981, 1985  and of focalization in Genette 1980  are reconciled with those of homodiegetic narration in Lanser 1981 and Füger 1993. A revised and comprehensive version of possible identity relations among narrators and focalizers is suggested and briefly exemplified through a number of well-known Anglo-American novels.
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Göran Nieragden; Focalization and Narration: Theoretical and Terminological Refinements. Poetics Today 1 December 2002; 23 (4): 685–697. doi: https://doi.org/10.1215/03335372-23-4-685
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