In The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (1900), L. Frank Baum imagines Dorothy's nostalgia for Kansas as a desire that compels her to develop a cosmopolitan ethics only as a means of returning home. But this psychic fantasy of cosmopolitan nostalgia inevitably compromises her engagement with strangers, transforming her ethics into an illiberal form of internationalist expansionism. By entwining these incompatible phenomena, Baum creates a lasting metaphor for U.S. foreign policy: Dorothy as the reluctant traveler who selflessly intervenes in the affairs of strangers with the intention of returning home instead of remaining abroad.

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