In recent decades, Brazil has been hailed as a model of successful prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS. For nearly three decades, the country has been at the forefront of progressive and proactive approaches to slow the spread of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. While recognizing Brazil's tremendous successes with respect to HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment, this article offers a framework for understanding the impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on African-descendant women in the country. The analysis focuses on the gender and racial dynamics of HIV/AIDS and seeks to center Afro-Brazilian women's experiences in relation to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. It also examines black women's HIV/AIDS activism and argues for the importance of an intersectional approach to HIV/AIDS research and health policy in Brazil.