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qaddafi

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Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (1 September 2011) 22 (3): 42–52.
Published: 01 September 2011
.... Libya, however, demanded an effective response as fears mounted of genocide as a result of Muammar Qaddafi’s threats of unrestrained action against civilian opposition groups. In rapid order, the Libyan leader unleashed his military, mercenaries, and tribal militias against unarmed civilians...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (1 September 2009) 20 (3): 77–94.
Published: 01 September 2009
... in Tripoli of Ambassador Gene Cretz. It had been more than thirty-six years since the previous American ambassa- dor had left the country.1 This was the latest step in a surprising rapproche- ment, sparked by the announcement on 19 December 2003 by Libya’s leader, Colonel Muammar Qaddafi, that...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (1 March 2000) 11 (1): 111–135.
Published: 01 March 2000
... international norms. Specifically, the administrations have sought to modify the international behavior of the Libyan leader, Muammar Qaddafi, who seized power on 1 September 1969 by toppling Libya’s pro-Western King Idris. Qaddafi thereafter used Libya’s burgeoning revenues...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (1 December 2007) 18 (4): 112–130.
Published: 01 December 2007
... genocide by a chorus of international actors, the conflict in Darfur actually has quite complicated historical roots. The disruption of local institutions by colonialism, the ambitions of Muammar al-Qaddafi in the region, the influx of modern weaponry into Darfur, Chadian president Idriss Déby’s...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (1 December 2011) 22 (4): 36–45.
Published: 01 December 2011
... assassinate Muammar Qaddafi, who had himself allied with the United States and Europeans in the so-­called war on terrorism even though he had previously been responsible for blowing up French and American civilian 40  Mediterranean Quarterly: Fall 2011...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (1 September 2012) 23 (3): 34–51.
Published: 01 September 2012
... internationalized civil war, which ultimately resulted in a North Atlan- tic Treaty Organization military intervention and the toppling and death of strongman Muammar Qaddafi. In mid-­January 2011, protesters clashed with Libyan police and attacked government offices, and from the beginning it was clear that...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (1 June 2012) 23 (2): 95–106.
Published: 01 June 2012
... Muammar Qaddafi government). In March 2011, following the United Nations Security Council resolution authorizing establishment of a no-­fly zone over the North African country, each made a minimal military commitment: Athens opened its air space to NATO planes and permitted the US Navy to deploy...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (1 September 2011) 22 (3): 1–9.
Published: 01 September 2011
... Middle East and North Africa, my expe- riences over several decades in these regions’ littoral countries were enlight- ening. I saw crises and conflicts — from operations during the Iraq-­Iran war and strikes into Afghanistan and Iraq, to crossing Muammar Qaddafi’s mari- time “line of death.”1 I...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (1 December 2013) 24 (4): 82–91.
Published: 01 December 2013
... the conflict and then to provide a face-saving formula for President Muammar Qaddafi did not achieve the intended results. Furthermore, Qaddafi in his televised messages threatened to exterminate the members of the opposition and to continue to use force, which led Turkey to consider revising...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (1 December 2011) 22 (4): 8–19.
Published: 01 December 2011
... of palace guards and exploitation of tribal loy- alties, some managed by a son of Qaddafi, helped to keep the regime secure from a military coup. Here, even if officers had decided that Qaddafi had long outlived any usefulness of his rule, turning him out would not have been as smooth and...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (1 December 2011) 22 (4): 20–35.
Published: 01 December 2011
..., ostensibly framed by good intentions, often appear as meaningless hypocrisy. In Egypt this has taken the form of great mass demonstrations in Cairo, Alexandria, and elsewhere. In Libya an entirely new government has emerged to challenge the tyranny of Muammar Qaddafi, and in Syria the Arab street...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (1 December 2003) 14 (4): 176–191.
Published: 01 December 2003
...Mohamed A. El-Khawas Mediterranean Affairs, Inc. 2003 Mohamed A. El-Khawas is professor of history and political science at the University of the District of Columbia, Washington, D.C. He is the author of Qaddafi: His Ideology in Theory and Practice and coauthor of American Aid to...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (1 June 2001) 12 (2): 83–100.
Published: 01 June 2001
... actions against a neighboring state. Libya under Muammar Qaddafi manifested a strong urge to dominate North Africa and its immediate neighbors to the south in the 1980s. Iran has always wanted to dominate the security affairs of the Persian Gulf. Its...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (1 December 2011) 22 (4): 62–79.
Published: 01 December 2011
... Libya as a rogue state and its leader Muammar Qaddafi as an unreliable partner and supported the opposition groups in Libya. In so doing, the United States pressured the United Nations to impose a no-­fly zone over Libya in order to prevent Qaddafi’s air forces from bombing opposition fighters...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (1 September 2009) 20 (3): 63–76.
Published: 01 September 2009
... office. Mauritania also severed diplomatic relations with Tel Aviv. The Libyan leader Muammar Qaddafi argued that the Gaza war reminds us why a final resolution to the Arab-Israeli conflict is vital, “not just to break the cycle of destruction and injustice, but also to deny the religious extrem...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (1 December 2008) 19 (4): 122–125.
Published: 01 December 2008
..., however, think free elections certainly would give the Front Islamique du Salut a good chance of control, which most likely would result in a renewal of violence. Libya’s ruler, Col. Muammar al-Qaddafi, is the most autocratic of the leaders in the region, making no pretense of movement toward...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (1 December 2008) 19 (4): 126–130.
Published: 01 December 2008
... elections certainly would give the Front Islamique du Salut a good chance of control, which most likely would result in a renewal of violence. Libya’s ruler, Col. Muammar al-Qaddafi, is the most autocratic of the leaders in the region, making no pretense of movement toward democracy. But with...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (1 September 2001) 12 (3): 1–7.
Published: 01 September 2001
... travel to America”; “Athens should not be allowed to host the 2004 Olympics”; and “Greece should be officially labeled a terrorist nation”—somewhere between Qaddafi’s Libya and Saddam’s Iraq, I suppose. MQ 12.3-01 Bakoyannis 7/19/01 4:59 PM Page 4...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (1 September 2014) 25 (3): 52–73.
Published: 01 September 2014
... by developing smart strategies that could live up to international antagonism.33 Operation “Odys- sey Dawn” against Muammar Qaddafi’s Libya in March 2011 is a telling example of the recently developed US smart strategy. Canada, France, and the United Kingdom were the main actors in the...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (1 June 2015) 26 (2): 42–62.
Published: 01 June 2015
...’ Alignment with Qaddafi,” Jewish Telegraph Agency, 1 July 1975, www.jta.org/1975/07/01/archive/israel-­protests-­makarios-­alignment-­with-­qaddafi. 52  Mediterranean Quarterly: June 2015 tions between the Republic of Cyprus and Israel remained cool, especially until the end of the Cold War...