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qaddafi

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Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2011) 22 (3): 42–52.
Published: 01 September 2011
.... Libya, however, demanded an effective response as fears mounted of genocide as a result of Muammar Qaddafi’s threats of unrestrained action against civilian opposition groups. In rapid order, the Libyan leader unleashed his military, mercenaries, and tribal militias against unarmed civilians...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2009) 20 (3): 77–94.
Published: 01 September 2009
... in Tripoli of Ambassador Gene Cretz. It had been more than thirty-six years since the previous American ambassa- dor had left the country.1 This was the latest step in a surprising rapproche- ment, sparked by the announcement on 19 December 2003 by Libya’s leader, Colonel Muammar Qaddafi...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2000) 11 (1): 111–135.
Published: 01 March 2000
.... Specifically, the administrations have sought to modify the international behavior of the Libyan leader, Muammar Qaddafi, who seized power on 1 September 1969 by toppling Libya’s pro-Western King Idris. Qaddafi thereafter used Libya’s burgeoning revenues to harass per...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2007) 18 (4): 112–130.
Published: 01 December 2007
... by a chorus of international actors, the conflict in Darfur actually has quite complicated historical roots. The disruption of local institutions by colonialism, the ambitions of Muammar al-Qaddafi in the region, the influx of modern weaponry into Darfur, Chadian president Idriss Déby’s domestic...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2011) 22 (4): 36–45.
Published: 01 December 2011
... is beginning to see a youth wing not as con- ditioned to religious obeisance as the leadership of the Muslim Brotherhood that had successfully avoided being demolished by Mubarak. In Libya, the Islamists had been persecuted, tortured, and executed after their attempts to assassinate Muammar Qaddafi, who...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2012) 23 (3): 34–51.
Published: 01 September 2012
... and death of strongman Muammar Qaddafi. In mid-­January 2011, protesters clashed with Libyan police and attacked government offices, and from the beginning it was clear that no negotiated settlement of the Libyan Arab Spring would be pos- sible. Qaddafi, indicted by the International Criminal Court...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2012) 23 (2): 95–106.
Published: 01 June 2012
...- tember 2011. 3. “NATO Making Mistake in Afghanistan: Turkish Minister,” Telegraph (Kolkata, India), 16 April 2008. Binder: Greece, Turkey, and NATO  97 ment in Libya (both countries previously enjoyed lucrative trade with the Muammar Qaddafi government). In March...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2011) 22 (3): 1–9.
Published: 01 September 2011
... in the Middle East and North Africa, my expe- riences over several decades in these regions’ littoral countries were enlight- ening. I saw crises and conflicts — from operations during the Iraq-­Iran war and strikes into Afghanistan and Iraq, to crossing Muammar Qaddafi’s mari- time “line of death.”1 I...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2013) 24 (4): 82–91.
Published: 01 December 2013
... for President Muammar Qaddafi did not achieve the intended results. Furthermore, Qaddafi in his televised messages threatened to exterminate the members of the opposition and to continue to use force, which led Turkey to consider revising its course of action. Meanwhile, the international mood became...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2003) 14 (4): 176–191.
Published: 01 December 2003
...Mohamed A. El-Khawas Mediterranean Affairs, Inc. 2003 Mohamed A. El-Khawas is professor of history and political science at the University of the District of Columbia, Washington, D.C. He is the author of Qaddafi: His Ideology in Theory and Practice and coauthor of American Aid...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2011) 22 (4): 8–19.
Published: 01 December 2011
... by a son of Qaddafi, helped to keep the regime secure from a military coup. Here, even if officers had decided that Qaddafi had long outlived any usefulness of his rule, turning him out would not have been as smooth and simple as it seemed in Tunisia and Egypt. Instead, the result was civil war...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2011) 22 (4): 20–35.
Published: 01 December 2011
..., ostensibly framed by good intentions, often appear as meaningless hypocrisy. In Egypt this has taken the form of great mass demonstrations in Cairo, Alexandria, and elsewhere. In Libya an entirely new government has emerged to challenge the tyranny of Muammar Qaddafi, and in Syria the Arab street...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2001) 12 (2): 83–100.
Published: 01 June 2001
... was the only occasion when the former acted as a rogue state, but the shellacking its forces received from the international coalition is bound to deter future hegemons from taking similar actions against a neighboring state. Libya under Muammar Qaddafi...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2009) 20 (3): 63–76.
Published: 01 September 2009
... forms of normalization with Israel and to reconsider their diplomatic and economic ties with it.26 Qatar suspended its relations with Israel and closed the Israeli trade mission office. Mauritania also severed diplomatic relations with Tel Aviv. The Libyan leader Muammar Qaddafi argued...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2011) 22 (4): 62–79.
Published: 01 December 2011
... to defend US imperial interest in the region. The United States regarded Libya as a rogue state and its leader Muammar Qaddafi as an unreliable partner and supported the opposition groups in Libya. In so doing, the United States pressured the United Nations to impose a no-­fly zone over Libya...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2001) 12 (3): 1–7.
Published: 01 September 2001
... to travel to America”; “Athens should not be allowed to host the 2004 Olympics”; and “Greece should be officially labeled a terrorist nation”—somewhere between Qaddafi’s Libya and Saddam’s Iraq, I suppose. MQ 12.3-01 Bakoyannis 7/19/01 4:59 PM Page 4...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2014) 25 (3): 52–73.
Published: 01 September 2014
...” against Muammar Qaddafi’s Libya in March 2011 is a telling example of the recently developed US smart strategy. Canada, France, and the United Kingdom were the main actors in the military undertakings, with the United States participating only in a supplementary role. As a conse- quence, the United...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2015) 26 (2): 42–62.
Published: 01 June 2015
...-­decades-­in-­libya-­s-­embrace.351530. 33. Mizzi, 199. 34. William A. Mussen Jr., “Government and Politics,” in Harold D. Nelson, ed., Libya: A Country Study (Washington, DC: American University, 1979), 222. 35. Quoted in “Israel Protests Makarios’ Alignment with Qaddafi,” Jewish Telegraph...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2008) 19 (4): 122–125.
Published: 01 December 2008
..., however, think free elections certainly would give the Front Islamique du Salut a good chance of control, which most likely would result in a renewal of violence. Libya’s ruler, Col. Muammar al-Qaddafi, is the most autocratic of the leaders in the region, making no pretense of movement toward...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2008) 19 (4): 126–130.
Published: 01 December 2008
... certainly would give the Front Islamique du Salut a good chance of control, which most likely would result in a renewal of violence. Libya’s ruler, Col. Muammar al-Qaddafi, is the most autocratic of the leaders in the region, making no pretense of movement toward democracy. But with agreement...