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oil-producing countries

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Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2016) 27 (2): 89–100.
Published: 01 June 2016
...Michail Ploumis; Labros E. Pilalis Five years after the Arab uprisings in 2011, countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) had difficulties finding their pathway to sustainable economic and political change. Arab oil-producing countries suffered from decreasing oil prices while the Arab...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2011) 22 (2): 31–44.
Published: 01 June 2011
... gas.44 Clearly, previous efforts have not produced the desired results and, as noted, Russia depends more on oil and gas revenue now than it did a decade ago — hence, it still remains a petro-­state. In addition, the Russian authorities must strengthen the country’s legal, economic and...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2000) 11 (3): 30–61.
Published: 01 September 2000
... of that oil comes from countries that themselves may have short-lived regimes and volatile politics: the revolutionary regimes of Libya, Iran, or 8. Spain. MQ 11.3-02.Wiarda 7/20/00 4:12 PM Page 38 38 Mediterranean Quarterly: Summer 2000...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2018) 29 (1): 96–119.
Published: 01 March 2018
... petroleum products made up 58 percent of the country’s total primary energy supply in 2013, with values hovering around 60 percent over the long term, as well.6 Because it produces its own domestic crude oil and because of its problems in the available refining capacities, Albania does not import...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2011) 22 (1): 27–40.
Published: 01 March 2011
...  35 bia and Iran are the largest and second-­largest oil producers in the Organiza- tion of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), respectively. The two nations, along with Iraq, Kuwait, and Venezuela, created OPEC in 1960 to defend their interests as major oilproducing countries. Since then...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2009) 20 (1): 119–144.
Published: 01 March 2009
... to a further reduction in 2008.33 As far as Maltese officials are concerned, they generally consider that the EU has been far too reluctant to put pressure on Libya to collaborate in Frontex’s maritime patrols, arguably also because of Libya’s growing importance for the EU as an oil and gas...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2009) 20 (3): 1–18.
Published: 01 September 2009
...J. E. Peterson There have been three economic transformations of the Arab Gulf. Yet the obstacles today remain eerily similar to those of forty years ago. Oil reserves are finite and nonoil resources in the gulf states—minerals, arable land, skilled population, and even capital for some countries...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2008) 19 (4): 91–110.
Published: 01 December 2008
..., particularly those that produce energy. China now imports 28 percent of its oil from Africa, mostly from Sudan, Angola, Congo, and Nigeria. In July 2005, China signed an $800 million crude oil agreement with Nigeria, and reportedly is considering some $7 bil- lion in investments in that country.22...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2009) 20 (2): 113–137.
Published: 01 June 2009
...Gregory Hall; Tiara Grant Increasingly, Central Asia, and specifically the Caspian Sea Basin (CSB), is becoming a crowded place, as government officials and oil interests from European Union countries, the United States, Russia, China, Iran, Turkey, and elsewhere (including increasingly energy...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2013) 24 (3): 102–128.
Published: 01 September 2013
... commodity in the world, second only to oil. One-quarter of the top twenty exporting countries of green coffee—seeds that have been processed but not roasted—are found in sub-­Saharan Africa. Coffees from Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya, Côte d’Ivoire, and Tanzania are known worldwide by coffee connoisseurs...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2015) 26 (1): 59–76.
Published: 01 March 2015
... China, noting that almost one hundred Greek ships are being repaired in China yearly, that 10 percent of the four thousand Greek vessels over five hundred tons were built in China, and that 65 percent of the oil imported to the country in 2004 was shipped by Greek-­owned vessels. 66...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2013) 24 (3): 35–55.
Published: 01 September 2013
... tangible deeds. Golden Dawn organized food drives for the poor and for families whose breadwinners had lost their jobs and were struggling to make ends meet. The party secured and distributed, free of charge, tons of foods, including packages of pasta, potatoes, milk, cooking oil, baby food...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2017) 28 (3): 68–92.
Published: 01 September 2017
... in countries producing oil and gas. That is, terrorist attacks on the energy sector may in some cases be an important part of a terrorist organization’s strategy for fighting foreign powers.4 Furthermore, it is becoming increasingly common for terrorists to steal from pipelines as a means of...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2013) 24 (4): 43–67.
Published: 01 December 2013
...-oriented and service-based economies. The share of services was higher than 50 percent in non-oil-producing countries, like Egypt, Syria, and Jordan, and more than 65 percent in oil-producing countries (see table 3 and table 4). This type of economy flourished at the expense of agriculture...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2013) 24 (1): 12–37.
Published: 01 March 2013
... petroleum products for export. As in many countries, initially the natural gas associated with oil pro- duction was flared. There was neither a market for it nor a network to collect and ship the gas from producing fields. This has changed gradually, and a vibrant gas industry has been established...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2017) 28 (2): 106–124.
Published: 01 June 2017
... an overall view of Turkey’s potential place: “Turkey will play a pivotal role in diversifying resources and routes for oil and gas transit from neighboring countries to the EU.”32 It is not a coincidence that as early as 2005 Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan stated that the main strategy...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2018) 29 (1): 70–95.
Published: 01 March 2018
... severe droughts and acute shortages of basic food items. Fluctuations in production of essential food items adversely affected food prices and harmed many poor countries that were already reeling under the adverse effects of the oil crisis of 1973. The first United Nations – sponsored World Food...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2010) 21 (3): 61–85.
Published: 01 September 2010
... energy security part- ner to many countries. Many Turks hope to transform their country into an energy hub for much of the eastern Mediterranean. Although approximately two-­thirds of the world’s known oil and gas reserves are located around Tur- key, most oil and gas exports from Eurasia currently...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2008) 19 (1): 42–62.
Published: 01 March 2008
.... El-Khawas: Nation Building in a War Zone  59 the parliament had not yet enacted legislation to settle issues related to oil. In February and July 2007, al-Maliki had gained the cabinet’s approval of draft legislation on managing the country’s oil resources, but the drafts were rejected both...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2015) 26 (1): 117–136.
Published: 01 March 2015
.... The main nexus that binds Beijing to the region concerns eco- nomic security, as more than half of China’s oil and natural gas imports are sourced from the countries of the region. China’s dependence on the region is increasing, and the stakes are rising in the competition between global pow...