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Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2009) 20 (3): 77–94.
Published: 01 September 2009
... sanctions and the lure of economic incentives. Thus the Libyan case, far from supporting a military approach to “rogue states,” in fact argues for a patient policy of diplomacy and economic carrots and sticks. Mediterranean Affairs, Inc. 2009 Randall Newnham is professor of political science at Penn...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2018) 29 (4): 19–31.
Published: 01 December 2018
...Ted Galen Carpenter When the United States and its NATO allies helped insurgents overthrow Libyan dictator Muammar Gaddafi in 2011, the belief was that the intervention prevented a humanitarian catastrophe and that a post-Gaddafi Libya would be stable and democratic. Instead, Libya became...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2000) 11 (1): 111–135.
Published: 01 March 2000
.... Specifically, the administrations have sought to modify the international behavior of the Libyan leader, Muammar Qaddafi, who seized power on 1 September 1969 by toppling Libya’s pro-Western King Idris. Qaddafi thereafter used Libya’s burgeoning revenues to harass per...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2011) 22 (3): 42–52.
Published: 01 September 2011
.... Libya, however, demanded an effective response as fears mounted of genocide as a result of Muammar Qaddafi’s threats of unrestrained action against civilian opposition groups. In rapid order, the Libyan leader unleashed his military, mercenaries, and tribal militias against unarmed civilians...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2015) 26 (2): 42–62.
Published: 01 June 2015
... with Libya under Muammar Gaddhafi, who had overthrown King Idris two years earlier. Indeed, Libya was one of the first countries to establish an embassy in Malta, while Malta reciprocated the following year (1965). In January 1972, when Libyan and Egyptian “military experts” vis- ited Malta...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2012) 23 (2): 95–106.
Published: 01 June 2012
... on Crête. Turkey dispatched four frigates and a sub­marine to join alliance patrols off the Libyan coast, but vowed it would “never point a gun at the Libyan people.”4 (Apropos Libya, it is noteworthy that after seven months of bombing Qaddafi forces — with more than ninety-­three hundred...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2003) 14 (2): 46–59.
Published: 01 June 2003
... of Libyan troop presence in Chad’s neighbor to the south, the Central African Republic, illustrate the blatant intervention that characterizes Libyan policy and action. The depth and detail of Libyan interventionism are perhaps best illustrated by the fact that Libya has, at one time or another...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2012) 23 (3): 34–51.
Published: 01 September 2012
... and death of strongman Muammar Qaddafi. In mid-­January 2011, protesters clashed with Libyan police and attacked government offices, and from the beginning it was clear that no negotiated settlement of the Libyan Arab Spring would be pos- sible. Qaddafi, indicted by the International Criminal Court...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2015) 26 (1): 77–96.
Published: 01 March 2015
..., obstacles come from the EU more than from China. The EU has not managed so far to present itself as a coherent actor Dossi: The EU, China, and Nontraditional Security  79 in the Mediterranean region, as demonstrated by the 2011 Libyan crisis. If the EU wants to seize...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2017) 28 (3): 68–92.
Published: 01 September 2017
... for the Muslim Ummah because it is in Africa and south of Europe. It also contains a well of [energy] resources that cannot dry. All Muslims have a right to these resources. . . . It is important to note also that the Libyan resources are a concern for the kafir West due to their reliance upon...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2016) 27 (4): 21–41.
Published: 01 December 2016
....3 The Libyan example will focus on the international military intervention that led to the first imple- mentation of the military dimension of the “responsibility to protect” (R2P) concept in the spring and summer of 2011. The second case study will extend this analysis to cover Syria...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2015) 26 (1): 5–25.
Published: 01 March 2015
... routes to Europe. During the Libyan war in 2011, for example, Beijing experienced severe losses (more than $18.8 billion, according to Chinese sources), and even higher losses might potentially come from an eventual spread of the Islamic State to southern Iraq, where most of Chinese energy...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2016) 27 (4): 100–118.
Published: 01 December 2016
... Spectatorship and Actorness,” Insight Turkey 13, no. 3 (2011): 107 – 19; Stephen Kingah, Ademola Abassand, and Sonja Nita, “Regional Responses to the Libyan Crises” (UNU CRIS Policy Brief 1, United Nations University Institute on Comparative Regional Integration Studies, Brugge, Belgium, 2011); Richard...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2003) 14 (3): 41–77.
Published: 01 September 2003
... and burning of the Great Synagogue.”43 “In 1979, a Djerban syna- gogue was burnt down, and in 1983 a synagogue was destroyed in Zaris, close to the Libyan border. In 1985, shortly after the Israeli air force raid on the PLO quarters in Tunis, two Jewish children and a man were killed and thirteen people...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2006) 17 (2): 7–16.
Published: 01 June 2006
... the countries and an office in Kosovo, will continue to work with its European partners to reassert a strong diplomatic role in the region. Libya Libya remains a country of interest for the United States. The Libyan accep- tance of responsibility for the downing of Pan...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2002) 13 (4): 21–37.
Published: 01 December 2002
..., certain anomalies began to emerge. For example, Muammar Qadaffi’s Libya continued to be carried on the State Department’s annual global terrorism report, despite clear indication that Libyan intelligence authorities were cooperating with American counterparts...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2015) 26 (4): 13–36.
Published: 01 December 2015
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2007) 18 (1): 1–11.
Published: 01 March 2007
... the United States had severed relations because of Tripoli’s act of terrorism against an American passenger flight in 1988, PanAm 103, efforts were successfully made to restore relations, ensure US access to Libyan oil production, and resolve Libya’s status as a sponsor of terrorism. Libya had been...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2013) 24 (3): 1–5.
Published: 01 September 2013
... with the delivery of small arms and military equipment and, as of July 2013 was considering perhaps even direct air support, on the same basis that the United States intervened militarily in support of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization no-­ fly zone during the 2011 Libyan uprising. While tensions...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2014) 25 (2): 33–47.
Published: 01 June 2014
... to victory in its war against al Qaeda. Central to the LWJ critique is al Qaeda’s expansion as a consequence of the collapse of the Egyptian, Libyan, and Tunisian regimes. The weakening of state intelligence services, the release of Islamist political prisoners, and the resulting security vacuum...