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Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (1 December 2018) 29 (4): 19–31.
Published: 01 December 2018
...Ted Galen Carpenter When the United States and its NATO allies helped insurgents overthrow Libyan dictator Muammar Gaddafi in 2011, the belief was that the intervention prevented a humanitarian catastrophe and that a post-Gaddafi Libya would be stable and democratic. Instead, Libya became a...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (1 September 2009) 20 (3): 77–94.
Published: 01 September 2009
... sanctions and the lure of economic incentives. Thus the Libyan case, far from supporting a military approach to “rogue states,” in fact argues for a patient policy of diplomacy and economic carrots and sticks. Mediterranean Affairs, Inc. 2009 Randall Newnham is professor of political science at Penn...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (1 March 2000) 11 (1): 111–135.
Published: 01 March 2000
... international norms. Specifically, the administrations have sought to modify the international behavior of the Libyan leader, Muammar Qaddafi, who seized power on 1 September 1969 by toppling Libya’s pro-Western King Idris. Qaddafi thereafter used Libya’s burgeoning revenues...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (1 September 2011) 22 (3): 42–52.
Published: 01 September 2011
.... Libya, however, demanded an effective response as fears mounted of genocide as a result of Muammar Qaddafi’s threats of unrestrained action against civilian opposition groups. In rapid order, the Libyan leader unleashed his military, mercenaries, and tribal militias against unarmed civilians...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (1 June 2015) 26 (2): 42–62.
Published: 01 June 2015
... he developed very close ties with Libya under Muammar Gaddhafi, who had overthrown King Idris two years earlier. Indeed, Libya was one of the first countries to establish an embassy in Malta, while Malta reciprocated the following year (1965). In January 1972, when Libyan and Egyptian...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (1 June 2012) 23 (2): 95–106.
Published: 01 June 2012
... ships from its Souda Bay base on Crête. Turkey dispatched four frigates and a sub­marine to join alliance patrols off the Libyan coast, but vowed it would “never point a gun at the Libyan people.”4 (Apropos Libya, it is noteworthy that after seven months of bombing Qaddafi forces — with more...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (1 June 2003) 14 (2): 46–59.
Published: 01 June 2003
... life. Reports in 2002 of Libyan troop presence in Chad’s neighbor to the south, the Central African Republic, illustrate the blatant intervention that characterizes Libyan policy and action. The depth and detail of Libyan interventionism are perhaps best illustrated by the fact that Libya has, at...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (1 September 2012) 23 (3): 34–51.
Published: 01 September 2012
... internationalized civil war, which ultimately resulted in a North Atlan- tic Treaty Organization military intervention and the toppling and death of strongman Muammar Qaddafi. In mid-­January 2011, protesters clashed with Libyan police and attacked government offices, and from the beginning it was clear that...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (1 September 2017) 28 (3): 68–92.
Published: 01 September 2017
... of Dabiq, from 2015: Libya has a great importance for the Muslim Ummah because it is in Africa and south of Europe. It also contains a well of [energy] resources that cannot dry. All Muslims have a right to these resources. . . . It is important to note also that the Libyan resources...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (1 March 2015) 26 (1): 77–96.
Published: 01 March 2015
... that, paradoxically, obstacles come from the EU more than from China. The EU has not managed so far to present itself as a coherent actor Dossi: The EU, China, and Nontraditional Security  79 in the Mediterranean region, as demonstrated by the 2011 Libyan crisis. If the...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (1 December 2016) 27 (4): 21–41.
Published: 01 December 2016
....3 The Libyan example will focus on the international military intervention that led to the first imple- mentation of the military dimension of the “responsibility to protect” (R2P) concept in the spring and summer of 2011. The second case study will extend this analysis to cover Syria, and in...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (1 September 2013) 24 (3): 1–5.
Published: 01 September 2013
... with the delivery of small arms and military equipment and, as of July 2013 was considering perhaps even direct air support, on the same basis that the United States intervened militarily in support of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization no-­ fly zone during the 2011 Libyan uprising. While...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (1 June 2006) 17 (2): 7–16.
Published: 01 June 2006
... interest for the United States. The Libyan accep- tance of responsibility for the downing of Pan American Flight 103 in Decem- ber 1988 and the payment of compensation to the families of victims led to reestablishment of diplomatic relations between the two countries in 2004. Liaison offices are now...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (1 March 2015) 26 (1): 5–25.
Published: 01 March 2015
... its investments and disrupts its maritime routes to Europe. During the Libyan war in 2011, for example, Beijing experienced severe losses (more than $18.8 billion, according to Chinese sources), and even higher losses might potentially come from an eventual spread of the Islamic State to...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (1 December 2002) 13 (4): 21–37.
Published: 01 December 2002
... continued to be carried on the State Department’s annual global terrorism report, despite clear indication that Libyan intelligence authorities were cooperating with American counterparts in collecting information on planned operations by Middle Eastern groups...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (1 December 2015) 26 (4): 13–36.
Published: 01 December 2015
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (1 December 2016) 27 (4): 100–118.
Published: 01 December 2016
... Spectatorship and Actorness,” Insight Turkey 13, no. 3 (2011): 107 – 19; Stephen Kingah, Ademola Abassand, and Sonja Nita, “Regional Responses to the Libyan Crises” (UNU CRIS Policy Brief 1, United Nations University Institute on Comparative Regional Integration Studies, Brugge, Belgium, 2011); Richard...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (1 March 2003) 14 (1): 85–91.
Published: 01 March 2003
... Quarterly: Winter 2003 now been negotiated. Egypt is a critical regional player, but it must not be allowed to dictate the terms under which peace is negotiated. The Libyan- Egyptian Joint Initiative (LEJI) must be recognized for what it is: a trans- parent diplomatic ploy to take southern self...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (1 March 2007) 18 (1): 1–11.
Published: 01 March 2007
... US access to Libyan oil production, and resolve Libya’s status as a sponsor of terrorism. Libya had been fighting its own insurgency against Libyan Salaf- ists associated with al Qaeda. So the Bush antiterrorism program sought to unify the struggle against terrorism and apparent terrorist...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (1 September 2003) 14 (3): 41–77.
Published: 01 September 2003
... and the dese- cration and burning of the Great Synagogue.”43 “In 1979, a Djerban syna- gogue was burnt down, and in 1983 a synagogue was destroyed in Zaris, close to the Libyan border. In 1985, shortly after the Israeli air force raid on the PLO quarters in Tunis, two Jewish children and a man...