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Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2002) 13 (4): 62–73.
Published: 01 December 2002
... and outside observers believe that the TNG is dominated by Islamic fundamentalist groups and that members of the al Ittihad security forces are being integrated into the new government’s security forces.2 The TNG has repeatedly denied any links to terrorist organizations...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2012) 23 (2): 77–94.
Published: 01 June 2012
... the questions. Kasfir supports the view that security dilemmas and violent predation are dissimilar processes but that the unrest of the state can trigger both. In addition, Kasfir’s analogy between the international system and failed states helps to explain the growth of al-­Ittihad and al-­Islah...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2009) 20 (2): 95–112.
Published: 01 June 2009
... to emerge in parts of the country, especially in the capital of Mogadishu. These courts functioned as local governments and often enforced decisions by using their own Islamic militias. Members of the al-Ittihad militia reportedly provided the bulk of the security forces for these courts...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2010) 21 (3): 47–60.
Published: 01 September 2010
... who received direct orders from Khar- toum and Tehran. The SIUP was not active until September 1993, when the Sudanese instructed it to join the fighting against the Americans. The Sudanese played a major role in the emergence and the transforma- tion of al-­Ittihad. Al-­Ittihad was transformed...