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iraqi

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Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2003) 14 (4): 116–138.
Published: 01 December 2003
...Bernard Reich Mediterranean Affairs, Inc. 2003 Bernard Reich is professor of international relations at the George Washington University. Operation Iraqi Freedom and the New Middle East Bernard Reich The war in Iraq...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2006) 17 (3): 104–108.
Published: 01 September 2006
...Robert J. Pranger Robert Olson: The Goat and the Butcher: Nationalism and State Formation in Kurdistan-Iraq since the Iraqi War . Costa Mesa, Calif.: Mazda Publishers, 2005. 278 pages. ISBN 1-56859-186-1. $35.00. Reviewed by Robert J. Pranger. Robert J. Pranger is a private consultant...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2011) 22 (3): 95–108.
Published: 01 September 2011
... by the Iraqi leadership to defend against threats to its incumbency. In recent years, Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki has increasingly pursued engagement with Iranian representatives in an effort to counter domestic challenges and consolidate state resources. However, while the present Iraqi elite has attracted...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2015) 26 (2): 21–41.
Published: 01 June 2015
... by Iraqi regime forces, rebel groups, Kurdish militants, and US-led coalition air strikes. The essay’s concluding observations analyze the parallels and differences between the Armed Islamic Group’s campaign in Algeria in the 1990s and ISIS’s position in Iraq and Syria in 2015. Anthony N. Celso...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2008) 19 (1): 42–62.
Published: 01 March 2008
... the difficulties they encountered and were slow to adjust to realities. It was a Herculean task to put the war-torn coun- try back together and to capture the disposed leader, who went into hiding before Baghdad fell and called for armed resistance against the American occupation. Many Iraqis had...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2003) 14 (3): 12–24.
Published: 01 September 2003
... opportunity to bypass the United Nations Security Council? Few Americans expected that Turkey would rebuff a U.S. request to use its territory to attack Iraq, and especially that it would reject an appeal delivered by Ankara’s best friend in Washington, Paul Wolfowitz. Initial Iraqi resistance surprised...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2009) 20 (4): 22–31.
Published: 01 December 2009
... of the country by the end of 2011. That is also the wish of Prime Minister Nouri al Maliki’s government and a majority of the Iraqi people. The first step in that process was the withdrawal of US troops from Iraq’s cities (with the exception of Mosul, where the anti- government insurgency remains potent...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2008) 19 (4): 1–13.
Published: 01 December 2008
... are not cooperating in the development of a pluralistic democracy in Baghdad. Iran is also allegedly making more difficult the establishment of security inside Iraq through its support of insurgents who are attacking US and multinational troops as well as Iraqi security forces. As always, perspective...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2003) 14 (4): 56–67.
Published: 01 December 2003
... surrogates who are ideologically com- patible with the Bush administration. The role the Pentagon had hoped would be played in the post-Saddam era by Ahmad Chalabi, an Iraqi exile with neoconservative associations, is an example. The new form of nation building, however, relies primarily on military...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2015) 26 (4): 89–109.
Published: 01 December 2015
... in Middle Eastern oil production and transporta- tion overseas; the closing of the Suez Canal, along with Syrian attacks on the Iraqi Petroleum Company’s (IPC) pipelines, had caused chaos and uncer- tainty in the international oil market and very nearly strangled European markets of badly needed...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2004) 15 (2): 17–24.
Published: 01 June 2004
... and good reason for Iraqis to celebrate and dance in the streets. It meant that they no longer had to fear that the dictator who had brutalized them for more than three decades would return to oppress them again. And President Bush received a nice holiday gift of a boost in his approval rating to over...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2017) 28 (3): 68–92.
Published: 01 September 2017
... of income. This strategic vision was clear from the very start, when (initially) ISIS and later the IS began taking control of parts of Iraq and Syria and consequently gaining access to several Syrian and Iraqi oil deposits and gas fields. Over the course of 2014, the IS took control of more...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2004) 15 (2): 83–102.
Published: 01 June 2004
...- cial interest groups or sold off to various lobbies. Russia in Search of a New Foreign Policy Strategy The numerous factors that directly influence the formation of Russian for- eign policy all played a role during the Iraqi crisis. First, in many ways the Nikolai Zlobin is director...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2001) 12 (4): 13–26.
Published: 01 December 2001
... happens to be in vogue, have managed to craft a situation that can be described only as a dis- aster for everyone involved—with the possible exception of Saddam. Nei- ther Iraqis nor Americans, nor anyone else who matters, have benefited in any way from...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2003) 14 (3): 25–33.
Published: 01 September 2003
... the Americans. Although the Iran-Iraq War ended on an indeterminate note, by 1990 the Iraqi leader had taken an apparent lack of U.S. concern about his irredentism as license to seize Kuwait in a bold pre- emptive move. Yet, along with the British, the United States had adamantly opposed past Iraqi claims...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2002) 13 (2): 1–8.
Published: 01 June 2002
... by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) under the Clinton administration to orchestrate Kurdish opposition as a counter to Saddam’s rule, and to promote a coup d’état from within the Iraqi military, were failures. Whether the failures were preordained by inad- equate policy or through intelligence...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2008) 19 (2): 19–46.
Published: 01 June 2008
... to all parties. The Syrian and Iraqi governments reiterated their demand for the immediate involvement of regular forces in Palestine, and King Abdul- lah, while ostensibly backing the demand, declared that he was of the opinion that such a course would become feasible only after the end...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2011) 22 (1): 27–40.
Published: 01 March 2011
.... Originally, relations were shaped by the rivalry between the Al Saud and the Hashemite ruling families in Saudi Arabia and Iraq, respectively. This rivalry continued until officers in the Iraqi army carried out a coup d’état and overthrew the Iraqi monar- chy in 1958. The removal of the Hashemite...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2003) 14 (4): 99–115.
Published: 01 December 2003
... Saddam Hussein’s regime was crushed, Iraqi military resistance would fade quickly. According to that sce- nario, American military commanders would transfer political power within weeks to an Iraqi transition government and begin to draw down U.S. forces from the 150,000 who waged the war...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2003) 14 (4): 76–95.
Published: 01 December 2003
... and Ariel Levite (Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 1994), 81. Muhula: Rogue Nations, States of Concern, and Axes of Evil 85 continued to be suspicious of Iraqi government activities several years after the end of the Iran–Iraq war. The determination of Iran to spread the spirit of its...