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civilian

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Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2016) 27 (2): 28–46.
Published: 01 June 2016
...Hakan Sahin The military's attitude toward the political realm is problematic in Turkey. While, on the one hand, it accepts the notion of civilian control, on the other hand, it has sometimes exercised tutelary functions or overtly intervened in politics. This essay argues that political thoughts...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2012) 23 (3): 82–97.
Published: 01 September 2012
... atrocities against civilians do not occur, and culpable if they do. Scott Woodward is an international police advisor with the United Nations Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS). Copyright 2012 by Mediterranean Affairs, Inc. 2012...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2013) 24 (1): 1–11.
Published: 01 March 2013
... fighters seeking to create a new, democratic Syria. The reality is far more complex and murky. Syria’s turmoil has troubling, long-term implications not only for that country but for the Middle East as a whole, and even for the international system. The searing images of civilian casualties coming out...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2018) 29 (4): 32–51.
Published: 01 December 2018
... to analyze a pattern. It argues that while a harsh domination has been established over the military by civilian politicians through massive efforts in structural, educational, and legislative domains, those efforts are far from being overarching. Whether it has produced a democratic form of civil-military...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2003) 14 (2): 60–76.
Published: 01 June 2003
... changes have occurred in the theories and practices of security affairs and civilian over- sight of the military since the end of the Cold War. More specifically, it is to find out whether or not new paradigms should to be applied in the case of the former communist countries from Eastern...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2004) 15 (2): 58–82.
Published: 01 June 2004
... of their democratization has been the reform of the armed forces and democratization of civil-military relations. Establishing civilian oversight of the armed forces and building mechanisms for civilian control are seen as important indicators of progress. However, southeastern Europe is an area in which...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2009) 20 (3): 19–39.
Published: 01 September 2009
... Wright: Defense Reform and the Caucasus  21 placed its military under civilian control and undertaken significant military reforms find itself in a disastrous strategic position, particularly when West- ern policy makers had touted such reforms as a path to stability and peace in the region...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2003) 14 (1): 85–91.
Published: 01 March 2003
..., heli- copter gunships, and ground assault forces against civilians, including inno- cent women and children, adding to the unfathomable human suffering and loss of life in southern Sudan—exceeding 2 million dead and 4 million displaced. These realities lead me to believe that we simply cannot...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2001) 12 (4): 27–32.
Published: 01 December 2001
..., and Somalia conflicts combined. In the past eigh- teen years, more than 2 million people have died in Sudan, and more than 4 million have been driven from their homes as the result of the civil war. Most of the dead are civilians—women and children—who died from...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2011) 22 (2): 57–75.
Published: 01 June 2011
... packages of July 2003, formally put into effect on 7 August 2004, contained an amendment to some articles of the Act on the National Security Council and the General Secretariat of the NSC that tipped the civil-­military membership balance in favor of civilians. The package also repealed the NSC’s...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2009) 20 (4): 83–97.
Published: 01 December 2009
... the legitimiz- ing force behind their intervention over the “elected” civilian authority in the mission of “protecting” the republic. This would contradict expectations about a country on the verge of intro- ducing itself to the European community, with the hope of one day becoming a member...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2000) 11 (1): 8–23.
Published: 01 March 2000
... intervention by U.S. forces to end gross human rights outrages at the hands of authoritarian regimes, however, seems open ended. In the president’s words, “Whether you live in Africa or Central Europe or in any other place, if somebody comes after innocent civilians...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2009) 20 (1): 94–118.
Published: 01 March 2009
... and Pakistan: Democracy Postponed Mohamed A. El-Khawas Democracy has not fared well in Pakistan. It has been on again, off again since independence in 1947. The country, under civilian rule less than half of this period, has developed certain institutional features of a democratic...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2000) 11 (2): 59–77.
Published: 01 June 2000
...-ravaged civilian infra- structure and reintegrating the country’s blighted economy and environ- ment into this proposed new (and presumably better) family of southeast- ern European nations. Just as the economies of the Danube Basin countries Joan...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2001) 12 (3): 85–97.
Published: 01 September 2001
... independence. They began with the 1988 riots in Algiers and the 1990 release of Nelson Mandela after twenty-seven years in South Africa’s prisons. For the most part, changes came about because both mili- tary and civilian governments had failed to alleviate poverty...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2011) 22 (3): 10–25.
Published: 01 September 2011
... (usually portrayed as innocent civilians) died in the conflict, as though that point cannot be disputed. The biggest blow to the credibility of the larger figure came in January 2010, when the Office of the Prosecutor (OTP), International Criminal Tribu- nal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2013) 24 (4): 109–111.
Published: 01 December 2013
... of the garrison state to a new zenith, where it has remained, except for short periods of civilian rule by Benazir Bhutto and Nawaz Sharief. The civilian governments of both leaders were dismissed from office by a nexus of the army chief and the then president, Ghulam Ishaq Khan. Zulfi Bhutto, one...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2013) 24 (4): 112–117.
Published: 01 December 2013
... of civilian rule by Benazir Bhutto and Nawaz Sharief. The civilian governments of both leaders were dismissed from office by a nexus of the army chief and the then president, Ghulam Ishaq Khan. Zulfi Bhutto, one of Pakistan’s most paradoxical politicians, pursued the develop­ ment of nuclear weapons...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2015) 26 (1): 77–96.
Published: 01 March 2015
... War — was based on the threat of invasion. With the new threats, the first line of defense will often be abroad. The new threats are dynamic.” Second, the EU should focus on a response that integrates military and civilian components: “In contrast to the massive visible threat in the Cold War...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2008) 19 (1): 13–32.
Published: 01 March 2008
... security/national defense apparatus has been the gradual concentration of power visvis the military establishment in the hands of a civilian secretary of defense, as established by the 1947 act. For those convinced that a stronger defense sec- retary was essential to more rational and economic...