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Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2013) 24 (1): 1–11.
Published: 01 March 2013
...Ted Galen Carpenter Western news media outlets have paid considerable attention to the civil war in Syria, but much of the coverage is simplistic and melodramatic. Too many accounts portray the conflict as a Manichean struggle between the evil, brutal regime of Bashar al-Assad and noble freedom...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2015) 26 (3): 94–116.
Published: 01 September 2015
... supported the regime of Bashar al-Assad and the latter backed the military coup in Egypt. Turkey needed the support of its North Atlantic Treaty Organization allies against these two rival blocs. However, Erdogan's populist discourse and tendency toward Islamist authoritarianism further deteriorated...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2016) 27 (4): 21–41.
Published: 01 December 2016
... parliamentarians have been active in foreign policy. First, they used the new concept of “responsibility to protect” (R2P) in 2011 over Libya. Then, in the case of Syria, their main focus was on reacting to the 2013 use of chemical weapons by the Bashar al-Assad regime. Later still, after several Daesh terrorist...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2017) 28 (1): 82–98.
Published: 01 March 2017
... that has weakened the insurgency. Finally, it assesses the role that Russian, Iranian, and Hezbollah intervention has had in bolstering the regime of Bashar al-Assad. Syria's jihadist revolt has limited but important parallels to the failed 1982 Muslim Brotherhood insurrection. Even with the regime's...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2017) 28 (1): 99–116.
Published: 01 March 2017
... Syrian Civil War Turkey ISIS PYD Assad Obama Doctrine PKK The Syrian Kurds and the Democratic Union Party: The Outsider in the Syrian War Spyridon Plakoudas After five years of vicious sectarian violence, Syria has been partitioned de facto in several warring statelets: (1) the...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2000) 11 (4): 117–139.
Published: 01 December 2000
... track in the Middle East peace process, the Israeli-Syrian negotiations, but some find similarities between the two tracks. The sudden death of the Syrian president Hafiz al-Assad on 10 June 2000 ended for the time being the prospects for renewed peace...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2011) 22 (4): 62–79.
Published: 01 December 2011
.... Political instability continued until the Arab Social- ist Baath Party seized power in a coup on 8 March 1963 with Sunni Muslim Amin Hafiz as head of the state. Power struggles within the ruling Baath Party paved the road for the military wing of the party led by generals Salah Jadid and Hafez Assad...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2011) 22 (4): 36–45.
Published: 01 December 2011
... ayatollah rule is widely recognized. Iran hypocritically blames Bahrain’s Sunni monarchy for its repression of its Shiite majority but rejects any attempt to isolate its Shiite allies in Lebanon or blame Syria’s Bashar Assad for launching broad military war against the country’s own populace. Iran...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2014) 25 (3): 27–39.
Published: 01 September 2014
..., the United States has been concerned over what it perceives as Saudi support to jihad- ists and other extremist groups fighting the Bashar Al-­Assad regime. On the other, the kingdom has strongly urged the Obama administration to take mili- tary action against Assad and provide military...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2014) 25 (2): 33–47.
Published: 01 June 2014
... 1990s Algeria, Egypt, and Libya were rocked by jihadist violence that, like the 1982 Syrian Muslim Broth- erhood revolt against Hafez al-­Assad’s regime, ended in failure.17 Regime countermeasures, extreme violence employed by jihadists, and internal frac- turing congealed to blunt Islamist...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2018) 29 (1): 1–18.
Published: 01 March 2018
... and insta- bility. 27 The Syrian crisis concerns the domestic fight for controlling Syrian territory between the Syrian government forces of President Bashar al- Assad and dissident Syrian rebels seeking to overthrow the government in Damas- cus and/or establish their own independent state.28 The...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2015) 26 (3): 49–66.
Published: 01 September 2015
... to the Syrian crisis. Still, it is EU policy that President Bashar al-­Assad should step down. While Tehran does not advocate that Assad should stay in power for life, it has strongly backed his regime since the beginning of the uprising in March 2011. The Iranians do not see the crisis in...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2015) 26 (2): 21–41.
Published: 01 June 2015
... operations. He ascended to lead the organization in 2010 after US forces killed ISI’s top leadership. Baghdadi expanded the network into Syria in 2012 when the Bashar al-­Assad regime’s repressive measures transformed a nonviolent pro- test movement into an armed insurgency. Legitimizing Baghdadi’s...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2013) 24 (2): 1–4.
Published: 01 June 2013
... All of these sources of competition are being expressed today. In Syria, there is a civil war raging between Bashar al-­Assad’s government forces and Syrian rebels. In Libya, Muammar al-­Gaddafi’s dictatorship of more than four decades has given way to an uncertain future, simmering with animosi...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2003) 14 (4): 116–138.
Published: 01 December 2003
.... pressure to secure Bashar al- Assad’s assent to joining the effort, but finally he refused. He believed that a U.S. invasion followed by an occupation would lead to anti-American senti- ment. Despite strong opposition to Saddam and his regime in Iraq, Iraqis would not welcome a long-term U.S. occupation...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2012) 23 (3): 63–81.
Published: 01 September 2012
... United States and United Kingdom, France closed its embassy in Damascus and then went one step further than other EU member states in implement- ing sanctions against Syria, although there was little immediate effect on the Bashar Assad regime.37 Earlier EU foreign policy approaches had failed...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2008) 19 (4): 29–53.
Published: 01 December 2008
... will main- tain its rocket arsenal as long as Iran continues its violent opposition to Isra- el’s right to exist [and] the Assad regime retains control in Syria.”13 Though many regional analysts disagree, it is entirely possible that the war of 2006 was orchestrated — or at the very least...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2003) 14 (4): 56–67.
Published: 01 December 2003
... president Bashar Assad has continued to be receptive to both the State Department and to the CIA. This could well be the result of fear of American military intentions. Syria’s efforts were accomplished despite attempts by Pentagon neoconser- vatives to raise the heat on Assad and disseminate false...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2011) 22 (4): 8–19.
Published: 01 December 2011
.... Sectarian divisions have played a role as well in Syria, notwithstand- ing that country being by most measures one of the most secular nations in the Middle East. The Assad family, whose rule extends back four decades through the tenure of the current president, Bashar, and his father, Hafez, belongs...
Journal Article
Mediterranean Quarterly (2012) 23 (3): 34–51.
Published: 01 September 2012
... Arab world since late 2010 are unprecedented in their magnitude and implications, public revolts against domestic rule had occurred in previous years.5 In 1982, a revolt in the Syrian city of Hama pitted Sunni protesters against the government of Hafez Assad. The Syrian military responded with...