The debate over the ban on women wearing headscarves in Turkey has served as a central symbol for Turkey's soul, torn between secular and religious identities. This essay explores the multifaceted narratives of Turkish secular and religious groups that have supported and opposed the ban on women wearing headscarves on government property. Progressing from nationalism literature and image framing in public policy, the essay applies quantitative and case study analysis to reveal how the reframing of the headscarf debate—via narratives of inequality, secularism, religious freedom, modernity, and education—evolved across political coalitions to redefine issues and alter policy outcomes.

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