Traditional maritime security challenges have returned to the Black Sea, and this has had a negative effect on the ability of the six littoral states to address newer security challenges. Traditional maritime security challenges include the buildup of Russian forces in Crimea, the return of conflict to the shores of the Black Sea, uncertainty over the demarcation of maritime borders, and strained relations between Turkey and Russia. As a result, newer and no less important maritime security challenges have, in effect, been pushed off the agenda.

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