This essay reviews and analyzes Albania’s connections with the Middle East since the era of Enver Hoxha’s rule, when ideology was a strong factor in international relations. Since the end of the Cold War, Albania has been most interested in developing political, economic, and cultural ties, especially with Turkey, Israel, and the Arab states of the Persian Gulf region. Through its modern history, Albania has been a good example of a politically and economically weak state exercising a fairly consistent asymmetric foreign policy based on the support of great powers and their allies.
Michael B. Bishku; Albania and the Middle East. Mediterranean Quarterly 1 June 2013; 24 (2): 81–103. doi: https://doi.org/10.1215/10474552-2141908
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