Greece's veto of the entry of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM) into the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in 2009 provides an opportunity to evaluate the possible costs and benefits of a FYROM membership. For NATO, FYROM's inclusion has only a marginal impact on the success of NATO's military missions. In fact, the inclusion of FYROM could mean more, not fewer, security challenges for the alliance. For FYROM, the benefits of NATO candidacy have not materialized. While its civil-military relations have improved, shortcomings still exist among FYROM's democratic and free-market institutions. Evaluating FYROM's case for membership results in a better understanding of the challenges and concerns related to continued eastward expansion.