Following a 1999 coup, Pakistan's General Pervez Musharraf ruled by decree with the support of the military. He held a presidential referendum and got his party elected. He amended the constitution to legitimize his military rule. His involvement in the war on terrorism led to the rise of religious extremism, and he persuaded the United States to propose a power-sharing plan. In 2007, Musharraf got himself re-elected by the outgoing parliament, an election subsequently challenged in court. In November, he declared a state of emergency and dismissed Supreme Court justices whom he feared would rule against him. Under external pressure, he ended the emergency after he had secured the presidency and resigned from the military. In 2008, opposition parties won the parliamentary elections and formed a coalition government. They have not yet reinstated the dismissed judges. They forced Musharraf to resign, but more steps are needed to complete the transition to a true democracy.

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