In the last half century, immigration has been transforming American society. The numbers are extraordinary. As of 2021, forty-five million immigrants were living in this country, the largest number ever; the proportion, at nearly 14 percent, was moving toward the record high of 14.8 percent in 1890. Even more remarkable, over one out of four US residents in 2022, or eighty-seven million people, were either immigrants or their children.1

In the wake of the post-1965 inflows, much of the concern in the scholarly literature has been with the impact on immigrants themselves. At issue is how the newcomers become, or do not become, Americans, and the difficulties they experience in making a new life in the context of racial and ethnic barriers, nativist hostility, often-exploitative conditions in the labor market, and, for the millions of undocumented, legal exclusion and fears of deportation. The struggles, the barriers, and exclusion facing...

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