If you consider yourself a woman and want equal pay, it is better to be a pharmacist than a lawyer. To make partner, the private law firm rewards on-call availability for clients who demand specific attorneys; billing structures up the per-hour rate when an associate clocks more hours, while penalizing part-time and interrupted employment. A decade from their degree, women lawyers earn only seventy-eight cents to the dollar received by their male counterparts, and more of them migrate to jobs in the public or nonprofit sectors. By contrast, the rise of the corporate drugstore, standard medicines, and digital record keeping has made pharmacists interchangeable with each other. Though feminization had nothing to do with these changes, according to economic historian Claudia Goldin, women pharmacists have benefited from standardization: their incomes are generally greater than other women professionals and nearly the same as men, especially when measuring hourly wages. For Goldin,...

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