It is a special honor to publish our work alongside rigorous critiques from Dorothy Sue Cobble, Kristoffer Smemo, Eric Schickler, and Devin Caughey. We are grateful for the opportunity to debate our research in the pages of Labor with such an esteemed and interdisciplinary group of labor historians and political scientists. In this memo we will restate our argument, address three common concerns raised by the commentators, respond to specific questions from individual commentators, and reflect on the potential implications of our argument for contemporary American politics.

Our article, “Rewarded by Friends and Punished by Enemies,” argues that the CIO's political action committee (CIO-PAC) contributed to an ongoing anti-labor backlash from the Republican Party. The CIO-PAC was founded in 1943 and quickly formed a de facto alliance with the Democratic Party. Although the CIO-PAC repeatedly claimed to be nonpartisan, 94 percent of its endorsements in 1944 went to Democrats. While...

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