Pei-yu chi [Journey to the North] is a late Ming novel, which since Ch'ing dynasty times has usually been published together with three other short novels, namely Nanyu chi [Journey to the South], Tung-yu chi [Journey to the East], and Hsi-yu chi [Journey to the West], as a composite edition entitled Ssu-yu chi [The Four Journeys]. Authorship of Pei-yu chi is usually attributed to a certain Yü Hsiang-tou, but the work is popularly regarded as the mythic charter of divinity of the Emperor of the Dark Heavens (Hsüan-t'ien Shang-ti), apotheosis of the north. Arguments based on analogy with present-day religious practices on Taiwan, as well as the content and structure of Pei-yu chi, are used to support a theory that the text was originally composed as a religious tract (shan-shu) by Chinese spirit-medium cults.

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