It is a well known fact that the friendly foreign policy of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom in 1860 was a failure. It is also known that this failure was largely due to the non-cooperation of the British and French authorities in China. However, it is not so well known how the policy was introduced, how anxiously the Taipings were seeking the friendship of Western powers at one time, how the failure of this friendly foreign policy took place, and how it affected the leadership of the Taiping regime.

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