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Journal Article
Journal of Middle East Women's Studies (1 July 2016) 12 (2): 225–245.
Published: 01 July 2016
... processes together: trans women’s gender reassignment processes in public hospitals and gay men’s medical examinations to receive exemptions from compulsory military service. In both sites institutional observation and practice are preoccupied with penile penetration as a tool to eliminate and hence...
Journal Article
Journal of Middle East Women's Studies (1 July 2014) 10 (2): 31–51.
Published: 01 July 2014
... Ruhollah Khomeini published a fatwa declaring that there is no religious restriction on sex reassignment surgery for hermaphrodites. In 1985, he issued an appendage to this fatwa to include transsexuals suffering from gender dysphoria. This reissuance impelled the process that culminated in new state...
Journal Article
Journal of Middle East Women's Studies (1 July 2015) 11 (2): 221–223.
Published: 01 July 2015
... (later Maryam) Mulkara’s effective lobbying of the religious-political establishment in Iran culminated in a fatwa by none other than Ayatollah Khomeini sanctioning sex reassignment surgery. Transsexuality, which had been a topic of curiosity and fascination approached through notions of natural...
Journal Article
Journal of Middle East Women's Studies (1 July 2018) 14 (2): 255–258.
Published: 01 July 2018
....” An interviewee pointed out the difference between having abstract rights and having actual protection and access to resources: There are problems in practice, but there is also a problem with the constitution. For example, sex reassignment is allowed in the constitution, but it depends on the...
Journal Article
Journal of Middle East Women's Studies (1 November 2015) 11 (3): 331–336.
Published: 01 November 2015
... faced by Iranian transgender women. She viewed sexual reassignment surgery (SRS) as yet another coercive mechanism of the Iranian state and said that none of the people she interviewed would have undergone SRS had they lived outside Iran. They did so, she contended, because they were pressured by a...
Journal Article
Journal of Middle East Women's Studies (1 July 2018) 14 (2): 152–173.
Published: 01 July 2018
... Ifta’ ruled that sex changes are permissible with the recommendation of a physician. In 1999 Iran’s Ayatollah Khamenei issued a fatwa permitting gender reassignment surgery for intersex and male-to-female transsexuals. The current paradigm for interpreting these judgments suggests that Muslim jurists...